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The Revolt Against Mass Manufacture Mass manufactured furniture was produced with a certain amount of fakery. Veneers were used to cover up cheap woods,

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Presentation on theme: "The Revolt Against Mass Manufacture Mass manufactured furniture was produced with a certain amount of fakery. Veneers were used to cover up cheap woods,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Revolt Against Mass Manufacture Mass manufactured furniture was produced with a certain amount of fakery. Veneers were used to cover up cheap woods, and both the carving and inlays that embellished low-priced stylish furniture were poorly executed. Arts and Crafts Furniture In reaction to mass-produced reproductions designers sought a return to medieval handcraft traditions with the intent of elevating them to the level of the fine arts. These designs were popularized by the English architect and writer Charles Eastlake in his hugely successful Hints on Household Taste in Furniture, Upholstery and other Details (1868). Eastlake advocated a return to simple, rectilinear designs inspired by country work, executed in oak and various fruitwoods. In the United States, where Eastlake’s book became a decorating bible, the simplicity was often embellished with such luxurious additions as ebonized wood, gilding, and inlays.

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3 Art Nouveau Furniture Directly fostered by the Arts and Crafts movement art nouveau flourished between the 1890s and 1910 in all of the arts. Art nouveau may be characterized as a style derived from organic forms that convey a sense of movement, exemplified by the famous “whiplash” curve found in many art nouveau works. In furniture, complement the sinuous forms of the architectural settings designed similarly asymmetrical, heavily carved free-form furniture in which plant and flower motifs predominate. Charles Rennie Mackintosh produced, in his unique interpretation of art nouveau, chastely beautiful furniture. Characteristic pieces are of oak painted white, with elegant inlays and appurtenances of metal or stained glass in curvilinear, abstracted plant forms.

4 Art Nouveau Furniture Charles Rennie Mackintosh produced, in his unique interpretation of art nouveau, chastely beautiful furniture. Characteristic pieces are of oak painted white, with elegant inlays and appurtenances of metal or stained glass in curvilinear, abstracted plant forms.

5 Art Nouveau Furniture Charles Rennie Mackintosh produced, in his unique interpretation of art nouveau, chastely beautiful furniture. Characteristic pieces are of oak painted white, with elegant inlays and appurtenances of metal or stained glass in curvilinear, abstracted plant forms.

6 20th-Century European Furniture Reform and revolution in the arts, including furniture design, marked the turn of the century. Prominent among the leaders of the revolt was the Austrian architect and designer Josef Hoffmann, who, with other architects and artists, founded the Vienna Sezession and the Wiener Werkstätte (Vienna Workshop) in The Werkstätte produced, among other types of decorative arts, furniture in cubicular forms that contrasted radically with the art nouveau obsession with curvilinear forms. They are reminiscent of Mackintosh’s restrained designs, which were much admired by the group. The right angle was used consistently, and detailing was rigidly austere. Sezessionstil was the precursor of two major 20th-century styles: the German Bauhaus, and the French art deco.

7 Bauhaus Furniture The Bauhaus, founded in 1919 in Weimar, Germany, by the architect Walter Gropius, was a comprehensive school of art and architecture that proved to be one of the most influential forces in the development of 20th-century art. Classic contemporary furniture, still being manufactured, was designed by its most renowned architects, Marcel Breuer and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Breuer designed his “Wassily” armchair, of chrome-plated steel tubing and canvas, in 1925 and his much-imitated cantilevered side chair, of tubing with wood-framed cane seat and back panels, in Mies created his world-famous Barcelona chair, a masterpiece consisting of two elegantly curved X-frames of chromed steel strips supporting rectangular leather cushions, in The aim of both architects was to devise aesthetically pleasing furniture for mass production.

8 Bauhaus Furniture Marcel Breuer Breuer designed his “Wassily” armchair, of chrome-plated steel tubing and canvas, in 1925 and his much-imitated cantilevered side chair, of tubing with wood-framed cane seat and back panels, in 1928.

9 Gerrit Rietveld Rietveld was a member of De Stijl, a Dutch Modernist design movement which held fast to rules relating colors to their symbolic meanings, promoting primary colors and simple forms and tried to reduce objects to their essential forms. Their collective aim was to achieve perfect balance between humanity and society, and between society and nature through humanity’s physical relationship to space. Inspired by the principles of De Stijl, Rietveld translated paintings by De Stijl artists like Piet Mondrian into three dimensional, useful objects, like his famous “Red & Blue” chair of 1917

10 Bauhaus Furniture Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Mies created his world-famous Barcelona chair, a masterpiece consisting of two elegantly curved X-frames of chromed steel strips supporting rectangular leather cushions, in The aim of both architects was to devise aesthetically pleasing furniture for mass production.

11 Bauhaus Furniture Charles Eames The conceptual backbone of this diverse work was the search for seat and back forms that comfortably support the human body, using three dimensionally shaped surfaces or flexible materials instead of cushioned upholstery. An ethos of functionalism informed all of their furniture designs. "What works is better than what looks good," Ray said. "The looks good can change, but what works, works."

12 Bauhaus Furniture Le Courbousier defined three different furniture types: type-needs, type-furniture, and human- limb objects. He defined human-limb objects as: "Extensions of our limbs and adapted to human functions that are. Type-needs, type- functions, therefore type- objects and type-furniture. Certainly, works of art are tools, beautiful tools. And long live the good taste manifested by choice, subtlety, proportion, and harmony".

13 Bauhaus Furniture Eero Saarenin

14 Art Deco Furniture Art deco, although its name is derived from the 1925 Paris exposition of decorative arts, can be traced back to the first decade of the 20th century, especially to the sharply defined geometric forms of the Sezessionstil. The Bauhaus concern with the use of new materials also had its influence. The art deco style persisted through 1939 and has had a revival of interest and even imitation in the 1970s and 1980s. The most accomplished art deco pieces have a streamlined richness that owes as much to superb handcrafting—lustrously finished rare woods with inlays of such exotic materials as ivory in angular, abstract designs—as to their daring geometric shapes. The style was rapidly debased, however, by shoddy mass-produced pieces. Louis Majorelle, André Groult, Pierre Chareau, and Jacques Émile Ruhlmann.

15 Art Deco Furniture Louis Majorelle, André Groult, Pierre Chareau, and Jacques Émile Ruhlmann.

16 American Furniture to 1939 Gustav Stickley

17 American Furniture to 1939 American arts-and-crafts movements created numerous ateliers and small factories, such as that of Gustav Stickley. Stickley manufactured a style based on Spanish California missions. His staff designed precisely constructed oak furniture between 1900 and It is rectilinear, simple, and utilitarian, with decoration limited to the handsomely crafted hardware and minimal inlay.

18 Contemporary American Furniture This line of furniture in natural maple was designed by Russell Wright, manufactured by Conant Ball Company for Macy's, and first introduced in 1935 under the name Modern Living. It immediately became popular as the first modern furniture in the US, and later was re-named American Modern. A similar line was also produced in bleached "blond" maple.

19 Contemporary American Furniture Present design styles have adapted new technology in the use of wood, metals, and plastics, constructing curved molded plywood, plastics and newly developed composite materials. Other design art forms began to develop furniture such as sculptor Harry Bertoia, who in 1952 produced lightweight wire furniture. Now furniture styles have proliferated so that hundreds of examples exist. The positive aspect is the range of choice, classic to “high-tech” medical and industrial furnishings, reproduction antiques to inexpensive do-it-yourself unassembled furniture in any style.

20 “Modern” American Furniture

21 Modern” American Furniture

22 Scandinavian Furniture Some of the most widely admired contemporary furniture originated in Scandinavia, especially in the years following World War II ( ). To name two of a host of designers, the Finnish architect Alvar Aalto and the Danish designer Arne Jacobsen created laminated wood furniture of exquisite proportions and eminent practicality for mass manufacture.

23 “Danish Modern” Furniture J L Moller Danish modern dining table teak c1955 Table leafs designed to fit into one of the pull out leaf holders. Cut from the same board as the top of the table so that the grain matches across the top through the leaves. 90” with leaves, 62” without and 35.5” wide, 29 high. Each leaf is 14 inches wide.

24 “Danish Modern” Furniture

25 Modern” American Furniture A B C D

26 Modern” American Furniture A Kandem lamp B. G.E. Monitor Top Refrigerator: 1927 D. Vienna Cafe Chair: 1925 C. MT 8 Table Lamp: 1923


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