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Buddhism. Buddhism; A Statement The Major Expressions of Buddhism zTheravada yThe Teaching of the Elders (The lesser vehicle) xSri Lanka xBurma xThailand.

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Presentation on theme: "Buddhism. Buddhism; A Statement The Major Expressions of Buddhism zTheravada yThe Teaching of the Elders (The lesser vehicle) xSri Lanka xBurma xThailand."— Presentation transcript:

1 Buddhism

2 Buddhism; A Statement

3 The Major Expressions of Buddhism zTheravada yThe Teaching of the Elders (The lesser vehicle) xSri Lanka xBurma xThailand xCambodia xLaos zMonastic life and Meditation z Mahayana yThe Greater Vehicle xNepal xTibet xChina xKorea xMongolia xJapan z Compassion for other creatures

4 The Other Expressions zZen yMystical xmind to mind transmission yStrong Meditation emphasis xKoans “Listen to the sound of one hand clapping” yAustere, Stark z Tibetan yVarious indigenous pieces xChakras xSexual Union xColorful Ritualisim

5 Sidhattha Gautama zBorn approximately 500 BCE zIn the warrior caste (Kshatriya) zBrahminisim ycorrupt zLeft home with 5 companions ymeditation, mortification, enlightenment

6 Enlightenment zThe cause of suffering in this world, and endless reincarnations, is selfish craving! yRenunciation, renunciation, renunciation xKnown as the DUKKHA zA teaching ministry begins, first with the 5, then throughout Asia

7 Buddhist Monasticism zMonkhood ylearn the disciplines yobserve older monks yMonks NOT priests xno vows, no rules of obedience yMonastery is a refuge from the snares of the world zThe Saffron Robe ysimplicity

8 The Middle Way zHigh way yasceticism, mortification, complete renunciation of ALL things worldly zLow way yeat, drink, be merry, if it feels good, DO IT! zMiddle Way ytakes the best of both ways

9 Buddhism zThe Three Marks of Existence (of a soul) ypain, yimpermanence yegolessness

10 The Four Noble Truths zLife is frustrating and painful zSuffering has a cause yconstantly struggling to survive zThe cause of suffering can be ended. zThe way, or path to end the cause of suffering ymeditation

11 The Five Skandhas zForm yan identification with the panic and confusion zImpulse/perception yThe way we feel about the experience zConcept yto identify, or label the experience zConsciousness yEgo begins to churn thoughts and emotions around and around xsamsara literally, to whirl about zFeeling ythe way ego feels about its situation

12 The Six Realms zhungry ghost realm zanimal realm zhell realm zjealous god realm zgod realm zhuman realm

13 The Eightfold Path zRight view zRight intention zRight speech zRight discipline zRight livelihood zRight effort zRight mindfulness zRight concentration

14 The Goal zNirvana yIt has become equated with a sort of eastern version of heaven ycessation xcessation of passion, aggression and ignorance; the cessation of the struggle to prove our existence to the world, to survive

15 Buddhist Ethics zA skilled mind ya mind that is skilful avoids actions that are likely to cause suffering or remorse yMoral conduct for Buddhists differs according to whether it applies to the laity or to the clergy (Sangha) zAvoiding any actions which are likely to be harmful

16 Five Precepts zA lay Buddhist should cultivate good conduct by training in what are known as the "Five Precepts". zThese are not like, say, the ten commandments, which, if broken, entail punishment by God. The five precepts are training rules yif one were to break any of them, one should be aware of the breech and examine how such a breech may be avoided in the future. zThe resultant of an action (often refereed to as Karma) depends on the intention more than the action itself. yIt entails less feelings of guilt than its Judeo-Christian counterpart. zBuddhism places a great emphasis on 'mind' and it is mental anguish such as remorse, anxiety, guilt etc. which is to be avoided in order to cultivate a calm and peaceful mind.

17 The Five Precepts zTo undertake the training to avoid taking the life of beings zTo undertake the training to avoid taking things not given zTo undertake the training to avoid sensual misconduct zTo undertake the training to refrain from false speech zTo undertake the training to abstain from substances which cause intoxication and heedlessness

18 And the Theravada tradition... zTo abstain from taking food at inappropriate times z To abstain from dancing, singing, music and entertainment's as well as refraining from the use of perfumes, ornaments and other items used to adorn or beautify the person zTo undertake the training to abstain from using high or luxurious beds

19 The Ten Realms of Being zBuddha zBodhisattva y(an enlightened being destined to be a Buddha, but purposely remaining on earth to teach others) z Pratyeka Buddha y(a Buddha for himself) zSravka y(direct disciple of Buddha) z heavenly beings y(superhuman [angels?])

20 The Ten Realms of Being zhuman beings zAsura y(fighting spirits) zbeasts zPreta y(hungry ghosts) zdepraved men y(hellish beings).

21 Living In the Ten Realms zThese ten realms may be viewed as unfixed, nonobjective worlds ymental and spiritual states of mind. xThese states of mind are created by men's thoughts, actions, and words. In other words, psychological states. zThese ten realms are "mutually immanent and mutually inclusive yeach one having in it the remaining nine realms."

22 What Is The Cause Of Karma? zIgnorance (avijja) yor not knowing things as they truly are zCraving (tanha)  the other root of Karma. Evil actions are conditioned by these two causes.

23 The Role of Karma zA doctrine of responsibility ythe continuing reverberation of ones actions xone should ALWAYS be VERY careful to ONLY do good zA doctrine of irresponsibility yIt is folly to attempt to better the lot of the miserable and the burdened. They are enduring the effects of their previous lives karma

24 So….no choice? zThe Buddha said: y"So, then, according to this view, owing to previous action men will become murderers, thieves, unchaste, liars, slanderers, covetous, malicious and perverts. Thus, for those who fall back on the former deeds as the essential reason, there is neither the desire to do, nor effort to do, nor necessity to do this deed, or abstain from this deed."

25 The choices we make NOW zThe belief that all physical circumstances and mental attitudes spring solely from past Karma yBuddha contradicted. If the present life is totally conditioned or wholly controlled by our past actions, then certainly Karma is tantamount to fatalism or determinism or predestination. xIf this were true, free will would be an absurdity. Life would be purely mechanistic, not much different from a machine.

26 God and Karma zBeing created by an Almighty God who controls our destinies and predetermines our future, or being produced by an irresistible Karma that completely determines our fate and controls our life’s course, independent of any free action on our part, is essentially the same. yThe only difference lies in the two words God and Karma. One could easily be substituted for the other, because the ultimate operation of both forces would be identical.

27 Buddhist Five orders or processes (niyama) zUtu Niyama zBija Niyama zKarma Niyama zDhamma Niyama zCitta Niyama

28 Physical Laws  Utu Niyama - physical inorganic order, e.g. seasonal phenomena of winds and rains. The unerring order of seasons, characteristic seasonal changes and events, causes of winds and rains, nature of heat, etc., all belong to this group.

29 Organic Laws zBija Niyama - order of germs and seeds (physical organic order), e.g. rice produced from rice-seed, sugary taste from sugar-cane or honey, peculiar characteristics of certain fruits, etc. The scientific theory of cells and genes and the physical similarity of twins may be ascribed to this order.

30 Spiritual Law zKarma Niyama - order of act and result, e.g., desirable and undesirable acts produce corresponding good and bad results. As surely as water seeks its own level so does Karma, given opportunity, produce its inevitable result, not in the form of a reward or punishment but as an innate sequence. This sequence of deed and effect is as natural and necessary as the way of the sun and the moon.

31 Rational Laws zDhamma Niyama - order of the norm, e.g., the natural phenomena occurring at the advent of a Bodhisattva in his last birth. Gravitation and other similar laws of nature. The natural reason for being good and so forth, my be included in this group.

32 Metaphysics zCitta Niyama - order or mind or psychic law, e.g., processes of consciousness, arising and perishing of consciousness, constituents of consciousness, power of mind, etc., including telepathy, telaesthesia, retro-cognition, premonition, clairvoyance, clairaudience, thought-reading and such other psychic phenomena which are inexplicable to modern science.

33 Reincarnation zPowered by ydesire yignorance ybeing asleep

34 The Arhat zWholly enlightened yall worldly attachments severed zANYONE may be come an Arhat

35 Bodhisattva zEnlightenment, on hold… yworking to ease the suffering of the world zMahayana Buddhism yenlightenment through the compassion for other creatures

36 Nirvana zThe ultimate state of quietude ycessation of; xbecoming xreincarnation xdesires this is what powers the wheel of rebirth

37 For More Information... z

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