Presentation on theme: "Buddhist Beliefs Based on Exploring World Religions, pages 168-174."— Presentation transcript:
Buddhist Beliefs Based on Exploring World Religions, pages 168-174
What is the ultimate goal of Buddhism? The goal is to end human suffering – both for oneself and for others What do Buddhists believe about reincarnation? Reincarnation does not involve the caste system. Karma impacts future lives. Samsara is the transference of one’s consciousness to a new body. Why is there no distinction between the genders in Buddhist thought? The Buddha taught that all people have been both male and female in previous lives… and this will continue. Explain the suffering of women and why it may not be considered an obstacle. Women suffer more than men (menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth) and the overcoming of this suffering brings them closer to enlightenment.
What is the Buddhist view of women? Women are equal to men. They are not the property of men. Other than nirvana, all things have three fundamental characteristics. What are they? Summarize these 3 characteristics in point form. Dukkha – dissatisfaction, life involves suffering Annicca – impermanence, nothing lasts forever Annatta – no-self; the self is not permanent, no part of a person is *them*. Link to aging, loss of abilities.
Why are there rules to be followed by Buddhist lay people (i.e. non-monks)? What are these five precepts? What precepts must be followed by Buddhist monks and nuns? To control improper (or non-beneficial) behaviour that might cause suffering. This includes both physical or verbal behaviour. The 5 precepts for lay people are: Do not kill living beings Do not steal Abstain from improper sexual conduct Abstain from false speech (lying, idle speech) Abstain from alcohol and drugs (intoxicants) The additional precepts for monks/nuns are: Abstain from eating after noon Abstaining from watching entertainment Abstain from luxury like perfume (things to adorn a person) Abstain from using comfortable beds Abstain from accepting gold and silver
Buddha’s observations about the truth of the world were not necessarily negative. How does his worldview help to prevent disappointment? We need to be realistic about the world. Even suffering can be overcome and is impermanent. Briefly summarize the Four Noble Truths as expressed in this section. 1. Noble truth of suffering – to live is to suffer 2. Noble truth of the origin of suffering – DESIRE, selfishness, greed 3. Noble truth of the extinction of suffering – end suffering by ending greed (changing one’s views) 4. Noble truth of the path leading to the extinction of suffering – we must adopt the 8fold path to end desire (the therefore end suffering)
Briefly summarize the Noble 8fold Path. THE WAY OF WISDOM Right View Striving to understand the Four Noble Truths Understanding life for what it is, not what we wish it to be Right Thought Understanding that our thoughts influence who we are and what we become Avoid dwelling on the past or future Understanding what leads to suffering and committing to eliminate it
THE WAY OF MORALITY Right Speech Speak only honest, kind, nurturing and worthy words Do not lie, avoid harsh words, gossip and idle chatter Right Action Do no harm Karma is the law of the universe – all deeds come back to us, in one way or another Follow the five precepts (and additional precepts for monks and nuns) Right Livelihood Earn an honest living that does not harm others or violate any precepts Earn a living that does not negative affect one’s own morality
THE WAY OF MENTAL TRAINING Right Effort Be determined to cleanse the mind, concentrate on the mind to eliminate desires and attachments Understand wholesome and unwholesome states of mind and commit to control them Right Mindfulness Be fully aware of what you are doing Always have concern for others Concentrate on the body to eliminate desires and attachments Right Concentration/Meditation Intensely meditate to reach salvation
How does the symbol of the wheel illustrate life and the path the Buddha proposed? The wheel keeps moving, like time, like actions, like karma Define the term bodhisattva. A person who has attained nirvana but remains in samsara to help humankind (people take a bodhisattva vow. Holy beings in Buddhism are known as bodhisattvas in Mahayana countries. REFLECTION: What do you take refuge in? What do you think are refuges for other North Americans? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=226w04QMPzQ