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Buddhist Beliefs Based on Exploring World Religions, pages 168-174.

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Presentation on theme: "Buddhist Beliefs Based on Exploring World Religions, pages 168-174."— Presentation transcript:

1 Buddhist Beliefs Based on Exploring World Religions, pages 168-174

2  What is the ultimate goal of Buddhism?  The goal is to end human suffering – both for oneself and for others  What do Buddhists believe about reincarnation?  Reincarnation does not involve the caste system. Karma impacts future lives. Samsara is the transference of one’s consciousness to a new body.  Why is there no distinction between the genders in Buddhist thought?  The Buddha taught that all people have been both male and female in previous lives… and this will continue.  Explain the suffering of women and why it may not be considered an obstacle.  Women suffer more than men (menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth) and the overcoming of this suffering brings them closer to enlightenment.

3  What is the Buddhist view of women?  Women are equal to men. They are not the property of men.  Other than nirvana, all things have three fundamental characteristics. What are they? Summarize these 3 characteristics in point form.  Dukkha – dissatisfaction, life involves suffering  Annicca – impermanence, nothing lasts forever  Annatta – no-self; the self is not permanent, no part of a person is *them*. Link to aging, loss of abilities.

4  Why are there rules to be followed by Buddhist lay people (i.e. non-monks)? What are these five precepts? What precepts must be followed by Buddhist monks and nuns?  To control improper (or non-beneficial) behaviour that might cause suffering. This includes both physical or verbal behaviour.  The 5 precepts for lay people are:  Do not kill living beings  Do not steal  Abstain from improper sexual conduct  Abstain from false speech (lying, idle speech)  Abstain from alcohol and drugs (intoxicants)  The additional precepts for monks/nuns are:  Abstain from eating after noon  Abstaining from watching entertainment  Abstain from luxury like perfume (things to adorn a person)  Abstain from using comfortable beds  Abstain from accepting gold and silver

5  Buddha’s observations about the truth of the world were not necessarily negative. How does his worldview help to prevent disappointment?  We need to be realistic about the world. Even suffering can be overcome and is impermanent.  Briefly summarize the Four Noble Truths as expressed in this section.  1. Noble truth of suffering – to live is to suffer  2. Noble truth of the origin of suffering – DESIRE, selfishness, greed  3. Noble truth of the extinction of suffering – end suffering by ending greed (changing one’s views)  4. Noble truth of the path leading to the extinction of suffering – we must adopt the 8fold path to end desire (the therefore end suffering)

6  Briefly summarize the Noble 8fold Path.  THE WAY OF WISDOM  Right View  Striving to understand the Four Noble Truths  Understanding life for what it is, not what we wish it to be  Right Thought  Understanding that our thoughts influence who we are and what we become  Avoid dwelling on the past or future  Understanding what leads to suffering and committing to eliminate it

7  THE WAY OF MORALITY  Right Speech  Speak only honest, kind, nurturing and worthy words  Do not lie, avoid harsh words, gossip and idle chatter  Right Action  Do no harm  Karma is the law of the universe – all deeds come back to us, in one way or another  Follow the five precepts (and additional precepts for monks and nuns)  Right Livelihood  Earn an honest living that does not harm others or violate any precepts  Earn a living that does not negative affect one’s own morality

8  THE WAY OF MENTAL TRAINING  Right Effort  Be determined to cleanse the mind, concentrate on the mind to eliminate desires and attachments  Understand wholesome and unwholesome states of mind and commit to control them  Right Mindfulness  Be fully aware of what you are doing  Always have concern for others  Concentrate on the body to eliminate desires and attachments  Right Concentration/Meditation  Intensely meditate to reach salvation

9  How does the symbol of the wheel illustrate life and the path the Buddha proposed?  The wheel keeps moving, like time, like actions, like karma  Define the term bodhisattva.  A person who has attained nirvana but remains in samsara to help humankind (people take a bodhisattva vow. Holy beings in Buddhism are known as bodhisattvas in Mahayana countries.  REFLECTION:  What do you take refuge in? What do you think are refuges for other North Americans? 

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