Presentation on theme: "WORLD RELIGIONS Welcome to the Complex World Of ** Buddhism ** The Religion of Enlightenment."— Presentation transcript:
WORLD RELIGIONS Welcome to the Complex World Of ** Buddhism ** The Religion of Enlightenment
TRIRATNA ( “ THREE JEWELS) Ways to Nirvana BUDDHAM SARANAM GACCHAMI DHARMAM SARANAM GACCHAMI SANGHAM SARANAM GACCHAMI =>The “ three Jewels ” (TIRATANA in Pali, and TRIRATNA in Sanskrit) is repeated every day by all Buddhists, both monks and laity.
I take refuge in the Buddha I take refuge in the Dharma (Teaching) I take refuge in the Community (Sangha)
3 Pillars of Buddhism (or Main Concerns) Wisdom (Enlightenment) Morality Meditation Not Blind Faith! * These 3 Pillars are clarified in the famous doctrine of 4 Noble Truths.
BUDDHIST DOCTRINE I. The Four Noble Truths II. The Noble Eightfold path
THE 4 NOBLE TRUTHS 1. DUKKHA 2. TANHA (or TRISHNA) 3. NIRVANA 4. EIGHTFOLD PATH
1. DUKKHA (Suffering) 2. TRISHNA ( “ thirst ”, desire) 3. NIRVANA (extinguishing the desire) 4. EIGHTFOLD PATH (the way for removing the desire)
The 4 Noble Truths 1. Life is DUKKHA 2. The cause of Dukkha is TANHA. 3. Nirvana: to end suffering we must extinguish the desire 4. To reach Nirvana the method is that of eightfold path
The Eightfold Path 1. Right views 2. Right intentions 3. Right Speech 4. Right action 5. Right livelihood 6. Right effort 7. Right mindfulness 8. Right concentration
These 8 steps represent the 3 fundamental aspects of Buddhist Spirituality: 1. PRAJNA: Knowledge, Wisdom, Insight (1-2) - Entails Views and Thought 2. SILA: Morality, Ethical conduct (3-5) - Entails Speech, Action, Livelihood 3. DYANA: Meditation or Mental Discipline (6-8): Samadhi, Samatha. - Entails Effort, Concentration, Mindfulness
BUDDHAGHOSA, a 5th-century C.E. Theravadin commentator referred to the two legs of Buddhism as Morality and Meditation, upon which the body of WISDOM or Insight stands.
Eightfold path: A. WISDOM (PRAJNA): 1. Right views 2. Right intentions B. ETHICS (SILA): 3. Right Speech 4. Right action 5. Right livelihood C. MEDITATION (DYANA) 6. Right effort 7. Right mindfulness 8. Right concentration
1. Right views, Especially of the 4 Noble Truths or Right understanding or Right vision of reality. ( “ To see things as they really are, ” not as I wish them to be). 2. Right intentions or “ Right Thought, ” Thought that is shaped by detachment from hatred and cruelty
3. Right Speech, Speech that refrains from falsehood, gossip, frivolity. 4. Right action Action free of killing, stealing, harming. 5. Right livelihood, Refraining from earning a living through astrology, casting magic spells, or careers that involve inflicting harm or killing
6. Right effort Effort to clear and calm the mind 7. Right mindfulness The distinctive form of Buddhist meditation that observes clearly the mind and body and cultivates detachment 8. Right concentration The last stage of advanced meditation that attains the mastery of trance states
4 Noble Truths 1. DUKKHA (Suffering) 2. TANHA or TRISHNA ( “ thirst ”, desire) 3. NIRVANA (extinguishing the desire) 4. EIGHTFOLD PATH (the way for removing the desire)
4 Noble Truths 1. Life is DUKKHA (suffering or pain that colors all finite existence). Human life as typically lived is unfulfilling and filled with insecurity. The desire causes suffering because every object of desire that is gained is, because of its inherent impermanence, ultimately lost.
2. The cause of suffering (or life's dislocation) is TANHA or TRISHNA Tanha = selfish desire, selfish craving, hatred, delusion, voluptuous desire, all forms of selfishness, greed in its multiple forms The term for desire (Trishna) literally means “ Thirst. ” It covers all that human beings “ thirst after far beyond mere liquids: food, drink, possessions, power, sex
According to Gautama, this root of human suffering has three forms (that correspond to the three fundamental human appetites concerning the senses, emotions and possessions) : - Greed for sense-pleasure (gluttony and unchastity are a kind of wild forces that lead people to much trouble) - Greed for individual existence - Greed for non existence or vibhava tanha
With his notion of Tanha (greed in its multiple forms), Gautama has pointed to the sickest aspect of the human tragedy. All human beings are victims of greed. But what is important is to be able to keep our appetites under control by the force of our mind and reason.
3. To end suffering we must extinguish the desire (= Nirvana) NIRVANA = the blowing out of desire = a state of ultimate peace. Nirvana comes from a sanskrit verb meaning “ to cool by blowing. ” Thus, it refers to the state of the one who has “ cooled ” the feverish Kleshas ( “ poisons, ” “ hindrances ” ) such as greed, hatred and delusions that create bad karma and bind the individual into samsara, the world of endless rebirth and suffering. 4. The path to attain Nirvana is the Noble Eightfold path
The Eightfold Path 1. Right View or Right understanding or Right vision of reality. ( “ To see things as they really are, ” not as I wish them to be). 2. Right intent or right thought.
What is “ Right Thought ” ? Right thought is not the same as Right Understanding, but the one flows from the other. Right Understanding is a vision of reality, but Right Thoughts are inner yearnings, aspirations, and wishes. One can have right yearnings only if one has a right vision.
Gautama detailed Right Thought as : 1°) thoughts of renunciation, 2°) thoughts of good will toward others 3°) thoughts of compassion or non harming They are the opposite of 1°) the thoughts of sense-desire 2°) the thoughts of ill will 3°) the thoughts of violence or harm
Note : Although Buddhism does not stress the performance of acts of charity as do Judaism, Christianity and Islam, it is not a negative religion insisting only on self- control. Gautama insisted that every person should project thoughts of friendliness toward others and even toward those who are not friends. Gautama touched the source of charity itself, which is good intention and compassion of the heart.
3. Right Speech Gautama has drawn attention to four types of wrong speech that should be avoided by the truly mature person : 1°) falsehood 2°) slander 3°) harsh words 4°) gossip
Gautama insisted on good speech because he knew what its power was in the transformation of individuals and of society. He advised : "Noble speech is apt. Therefore, Express reality, not non-reality. Say what is pleasant, not what is unpleasant. Speak what is true, not lies. Speak only words that do not bring remorse, nor hurt another. That is good speech indeed".
4. Right Conduct or right action: Five Transgressions and Five Precepts Ten Evils Ten Precepts
The Five Transgressions 1. Killing father, mother, monk, injuring the Buddha, 2. Creating disharmony in the Sangha (in Hinayana Buddhism) 3. vandalizing temple, statues, and scriptures, 4. Slandering the teaching, obstructing religious practices, 5. violating the five precepts, and committing the ten evils (in Mahayana Buddhism)
The Five Precepts: 1. Do not kill (animals and vegetations included) 2. Do not steal 3. Do not lie 4. Do not be unchaste 5. Do not drink intoxicants
The Ten Evils: 1. Killing, 6. Lying 2. Anger7. Harsh words 3. Stealing 8. Slandering 4. Greed9. Idle talk 5. Adultery10.Wrong views