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Carrot. ♥ Root vegetables include carrots, radish, turnip, beets, parsnips, rutabagas, horse radish and Jerusalem artichoke. ♥ These crops are grown for.

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Presentation on theme: "Carrot. ♥ Root vegetables include carrots, radish, turnip, beets, parsnips, rutabagas, horse radish and Jerusalem artichoke. ♥ These crops are grown for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carrot

2 ♥ Root vegetables include carrots, radish, turnip, beets, parsnips, rutabagas, horse radish and Jerusalem artichoke. ♥ These crops are grown for their enlarged fleshy roots which actually consist of both root and some stem tissues. ♥ These vegetables are short duration and have high productivity. ♥ Best suitable for sequential cropping, intercropping and relay cropping which enables maximum use of arable land. ♥ Botanically they belong to different families but their cultural practices are almost similar.

3 Botanical Name:Daucus carota L. Family:Umbelliferae Chromosome No.2n=18 Origin: South western Asia (Afghanistan) Carrot

4 Carrot is a popular cool season crop ♥ Valued as a nutritive food because of high carotene contents. ♥ Used as salad, cooked and in soups and stew preparation etc. ♥ Increases quality of urine and helps elimination of uric acid. ♥ Black carrots are used for the preparation of a soft beverage called Kanji, which is supposed to be a good appetizer. ♥ Red type is good for preparing various types of sweets especially Gajar Halwa in northern India. ♥ Carrot seed oil is used for flavouring liquors & all kind of food substitutes. ♥ Carrot seeds are aromatic, stimulant and carminative

5 Asiatic or tropical typeEuropean or Temperate Type Varieties  Produce seeds in plains.  Do not require any low temperature treatment for flowering.  Long and red coloured roots with white or creamy core.  Rich in lycopene  Requires chilling ( o C) for flowering, resulting its cultivation to hills.  Medium and orange coloured roots with centre core.  Rich in carotene Pusa KesarPusa Yamdagini Pusa MeghaliJeno Sel-333Imperator No. 29Chantaney Hisar GairicDanvers Early Nantes Nantes Nantes Half Long Ooty

6 Varieties recommended for Himachal Pradesh Asiatic or tropical typeEuropean Type or Temperate Type Varieties Pusa Kesar Pusa Ashita Pusa Rudhira Nantes Chantney Pusa Yamdagini

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8 Pusa Rudhira Pusa Asita New recent release

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10 Pigment power being converted into nutrient rich varietal wealth

11 Classification of roots on the basis of shape 1. Long rooted: 25 cm or more in length, generally tapering. 2. Half-long rooted: Does not exceed 20 cm. i.Roots cylindrical with straight or sloppy shoulder e.g. Nantes ii.Roots tapering with blunt or semi-blunt type e.g. Chanteney or Imperator. 3. Short-stump rooted : These are suitable for growing in heavy soils. i.Heart shaped: e.g. Oxheart. ii.Oval: Early Scarlet Horn. iii.Round: French Forcing.

12 ♠ Carrots prefer deep, loose, well drained, sandy loams or loam soil with a slightly acidic reaction. ♠ The edible roots may become misshapened as a result of poor soil structure or obstructions such as stones, clods or trash ♠ Heavy soils likely to produce abundant leaf growth and forked roots. The roots tend to be more rough and coarse ♠ The optimum soil pH is ♠ The soil should be thoroughly pulverized to obtain a fine tilth otherwise it results in deformed roots Soils

13 Climate ♥ It is predominantly a cool season crop. ♥ A temperature range of 7.2 to 23.9 o C is suitable for seed germination and 18.3 to 23.9 o C for better root growth. ♥ The optimum temperature for better colour development of roots is o C. ♥ High temperature results into early bolting though Asiatic types are resistant to some extent. ♥ Asiatic types produce seed freely under tropical conditions of the plains. ♥ Temperate types require low temperature (4.8 –10 o C ) for 4-6 weeks at any time during development of roots or after maturation either in storage or field conditions for seed production. ♥ The seeds of European types are produced only in hills.

14 Sowing Time Seed Rate North Indian plainsMiddle of August- beginning of December Himachal Pradesh Low HillsAugust-September Mid HillsJuly – September High HillsMarch- July 8-10 kg/ha  Seeds are to be mixed with fine sand before sowing to facilitate even distribution.  The seeds should be rubbed to remove the fine hairs before sowing.  To remove the inhibitor present in the seeds, soaking of seed in water at 20 o C for 24 hours and then drying at 20 o C has given encouraging results of seed germination.

15 Spacing 30cm X 8-10cm ◙ The seed should be sown at a depth of cm deep on the ridges ◙ After germination maintain the distance of 8-10cm between the plants with in row by following thinning of plants.

16 Manures and Fertilizers Farmyard manure (q/ha) NP2O5P2O5 K 2 O (Kg/ha) ☻ Full dose of farmyard manure, P, K and half of N should be applied at the time of transplanting. ☻ Remaining part of N should be top dressed in two equal installments at an interval of one month each. ☻ Excess of N affects the root quality like sugar, dry matter, carotene and vitamin C Open pollinated varieties

17 ► Carrots grow slowly at the seedling stage, so removal of weeds is quite essential especially at earlier stage. ► For effective weed control, a pre-emergence application of 1.12 kg of propazine has to be done. ► Earthing up is also essential for better growth and development of roots. Interculture and weed control

18 Irrigation ╠A pre-sowing irrigation is to be given to help the seeds absorb moisture and germinate properly. ╠Carrots require an abundant and well distributed water supply. ╠Dry weather followed by wet weather is conducive to cracking of roots. ╠Carrots should be irrigated before any wilting of leaves takes place. ╠It should not be irrigated heavily as it results in excessive foliage growth, poor quality roots and delayed maturity.

19 Harvesting ☻ For fresh market, harvest carrots before plants reach full maturity in order to assure quality, ☻ For processing, allow roots to grow longer in the season to maximize yield. ☻ For fresh market, smaller, tender, milder in flavour and uniform in appearance are to be harvested for getting good returns. ☻ The common Asiatic varieties attain the marketable stage at cm dia at the upper end. ☻ A light irrigation before 2-3 days of harvesting is to be given to facilitate the pulling of the roots from the soil without any damage. ☻ Roots harvested with top are called bunch carrot while those without the tops are called bulk carrots. ☻ Most carrots for fresh market are now topped which greatly reduces water loss from the roots and increases storage life. Yield ♠ Asiatic types: q/ha ♠ European Types: q/ha

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21 Post Harvest Handling ♣ Roots are washed clean, graded and tied in bunches of 6 or 12 roots after harvesting. ♣ Fresh carrots can be stored for more than 3-4 days under ordinary conditions. ♣ At temperature o C with % RH, roots can be stored for 3-4 months. ♣ Under cold storage at 32 o F with high humidity ( %),  mature topped carrots can be stored upto 7-9 months  immature usually not more than 2-3 weeks

22 PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS

23 Possible Reasons 1. Root splitting ☻ Splitting or cracking of carrot roots is a major problem. ☻ Generally controlled by genic factors. ☻ Number of other factors may also be involved. ☻ Wider spacing as larger roots tend to split more ☻ Dry weather followed by wet weather is conducive to cracking of roots. ☻ Increases as the amount of N in the soil increases & high soil concentration of ammonium compounds cause more serious splitting than other forms of N. ☻ Increased by chlorides and reduced by low N ☻ Early cultivars tend to split more readily than late ones.

24 2. Cavity spot ☻ It appears as a cavity in the cortex. Possible Reasons  Ca deficiency, associated with an increased accumulation of K and decreased accumulation of Ca  Increase in Ca level in the growing medium results in increased Ca accumulation in the plant and a significant reduction in the incidence of cavity spot.

25  A common disorder in carrot and radish formed by the enlargement of secondary root growth 3. Forking Possible Reasons ♣ Excess moisture during the root development ♣ It occurs also in heavy soils due to soil compactness. Management ♣ Balanced irrigation. ♣ Sandy loam & light soils are preferred for sowing (loose & friable)

26 Diseases (not very serious problem) Leaf blight. Leaf spot or cercospora blight: proper drainage. Powdery mildew. Watery soft rot. Black rot. Bacterial soft rot.

27 Insects (not very serious problem) Rust fly-Apply malathion 5% or Folidol 2% Turnip moth-Spray 0.05%


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