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SOIL SUITABILITY AND MANAGEMENT FOR TOMATO NextEnd.

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Presentation on theme: "SOIL SUITABILITY AND MANAGEMENT FOR TOMATO NextEnd."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOIL SUITABILITY AND MANAGEMENT FOR TOMATO NextEnd

2 INTRODUCTION  The tomato should have a firm flesh and a uniform colour with no blemishes, wrinkles or cracks. It should weigh heavy in the hand.  Light puffy tomatoes usually have a poor texture and taste.  Tomatoes do very well on most mineral soils, but they prefer deep, well drained sandy loams.  Upper layer of soil should be porous with little sand and good clay in the subsoil.  Soil depth 15 to 20cm proves to be good for healthy crop.  Deep tillage can allow for adequate root penetration in heavy clay type soils, which allows for production in these soil types. NextPreviousEnd

3  Tomato is a moderately tolerant crop to a wide pH range. A pH of is preferred.  Though tomato plants will do well in more acidic soils with adequate nutrient supply and availability.  Tomato is moderately tolerant to acid soil that is pH of 5.5.  The soils with proper water holding capacity, aeration, free from salts are selected for cultivation. NextPreviousEnd

4 Soils extremely high in organic matter are not recommended due to the high moisture content of this media and nutrient deficiencies. But, as always, the addition of organic matter to mineral soils will increase yield. Tomato is a warm season crop, it requires warm and cool climate. The plants cannot withstand frost and high humidity. Also light intensity affects pigmentation, fruit colour, fruit set. The plant is highly affected by adverse climatic conditions. NextPreviousEnd

5 It requires different climatic range for seed germination, seedling growth, flower and fruit set, and fruit quality. Temperature below 10 0 C and above 38 0 C adversely affects plant tissues thereby slow down physiological activities. It thrives well in temperature 10 0 C to 30 0 C with optimum range of temperature is C. The mean temperatures below 16 0 C and above 27 0 C are not desirable. The plant doesn’t withstand frost, it requires low to medium rainfall, and does well under average monthly temperature of 21 to 23 0 C. NextPreviousEnd

6 Avoid water stress and long dry period as it causes cracking of fruits. Bright sunshine at the time of fruit set helps to develop dark red coloured fruits. Temperature Requirement S.No.StagesTemperature ( 0 C) MinimumSuitableMaximum 1.Seed germination Seedling growth Fruit set (day) (night) Red colour development NextPreviousEnd

7 WATER AND HUMIDITY  A simple thumb rule can be used to determine whether local water supplies are sufficient for growing tomato.  If there are herbaceous plants growing in the natural environment, it will be possible to grow tomato.  Water stress and long dry periods will cause buds and flowers to drop off, and the fruits to split.  However, if rains are too heavy and humidity is too high, the growth of mould will increase and the fruit will rot.  Cloudy skies will slow down the ripening of tomatoes.  However, adapted cultivars are available. Seed companies have special tomato varieties for hot-humid climates NextPreviousEnd

8 METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 1. Clean culture 2. Clean culture with cover crops 3. Mulching 4. Sod 5. Sod mulch 6. Intercropping 7. Mixed cropping 8. Multitier system of cropping NextPreviousEnd

9 1. CLEAN CULTURE Involves regular ploughing and removal of weeds. Cultivation should be minimized by avoiding deep and frequent cultivation and also cultivation when the soil is too wet. To avoid loss of humus, nitrogen, soil erosion, formation of hard pan etc., Soil suitability and management for mango production NextPreviousEnd

10 2. CLEAN CULTURE WITH COVER CROPS Involves raising of a cover crop or green manure after removing the weeds. Green manure crops like Sunhemp, Cowpea, Daincha, Lupins etc. are more commonly used.  Crop residues like straw, cotton stalks, leaves, saw dust, pine needles, coir dust arid other materials like polythene films or certain special kinds of paper are spread in the tree basins and in inter spaces between trees.  Plastic mulch in tomato field it keeps moisture in the soil and prevents weeds. 3. MULCHING NextPreviousEnd

11 In this method, permanent cover of grass is raised in the orchard and no tillage is given. 4. SOD  This is similar to sod with the only difference is that the vegetation is cut frequently and the cut material is allowed to remain on the ground. 5. SOD MULCH NextPreviousEnd

12 6. INTERCROPPING The practice of growing any economic crop in alley spaces of the plant or in the' unoccupied spaces of the long duration crop in the early periods is referred as intercropping. Tomato intercropped with amaranthus, maize (trap crop) and sweet potato (Sheela et al., 2002). Intercropping of tomato with cabbage. Combining these crops will reduce the damage done by the diamond-back moth. NextPreviousEnd

13 7. MIXED CROPPING It refers to the practice of growing certain perennial crops in the alley spaces of the main perennial crops. The main advantage is the effective utilization of available area and increase in the net income of the farm per unit area. For example Fifteen days before transplanting a tomato crop, marigold (Tagetes erecta and other closely related varieties) is sown along the field border and also along the water channels in the field. This mixed cropping system helps to control the fruit borer in tomato. NextPreviousEnd

14 8. MULTITIER SYSTEM OF CROPPING Intercropping and mixed cropping involve jointly multitier system of cropping Defined as a compatible companion of crops having varying morphological frames and rooting habits, grown together in such a manner that their canopies intercept solar energy at varying heights and their roots forage the soil at different zones. The main principle here is that the land, water and sunlight should be effectively used. Previous


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