Presentation on theme: "Chinese Cabbage. Not a member of cole group but regarded as very closely allied crop due to Similarity in breeding systems, Cultivation practices,"— Presentation transcript:
Not a member of cole group but regarded as very closely allied crop due to Similarity in breeding systems, Cultivation practices, Season of growing and other features besides being a member of Brassica vegetables. One of the important vegetables in eastern Asia. Popular in China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan aand Mangolia. Grown little in India and China, - a new vegetable Grown by small farmers due to its short duration. Valuable source of Ca, Crude fibre and vitamin C in the human diet. Origin Native of China
Classification 1.Loose leaved variety (var dissoluta): Terminal bud under developed, forming no leaf bud; rosette leaves oblanceolate, spreading or erect & usually grown in spring and summer in all parts of China. 2.Semi heading variety (var. imfareta): Terminal bud with its outer layer of leaves fairly well developed, forming head with a hollow centre; plants large & tall. Usually grown in autumn.
3. Fluffy topped heading variety (var. laxa): Terminal bud well developed forming rather a solid head with its leaf tips curling upwards & forming a fluffy top; plants small, rosette leaves obovate & spreading. Usually grown in late summer & autumn. 4. Heading variety (var. cephalata): Terminal bud well developed forming a solid head with leaf tips close to over lapping on the top; grown usually either as an early crop for autumn or a late crop for winter.
Fertile soil with sufficient moisture supply and in good physical condition Soil pH 6.8-7.8. Cold season crop in tropics and subtropics while in temperate climate, is grown as summer, autumn & spring crop (under protection). Best temperature 15-21 o C, below which seed stalk may emerge before good heads are produced. Highest yield obtained at temperature 25 o C. SOIL & CLIMATE
Varieties Solan Selection Palampur Green Solan Band Sarson Chinese Sarson No.1 Low HillsAugust-October Mid HillsJuly-October High HillsApril-June Nursery Sowing time
600-750 g/ha for nursery raising 2.5 kg/ha for direct sowing. Seed rate 45cm x 30 cm within and between the rows. Spacing
FYM: 20 tonnes/ha 90 kg N: 50 kg P2O5: 30 kg K2O/ha Whole of FYM + P2O5 + K2O + 1/3 N – at the time of transplanting 2/3rd N as topdressing after the 2nd & 4th cutting for the quick growth of plants. Manures and Fertilizers
Shelf life is 30 days at 5 o C, 60 days at 2.5 o C and 90 – 120 days at 0 o C. Can be stored several weeks at 0 o C and 95% RH under CA conditions. Low O 2 (2%) in combination with low CO 2 (2%) improves shelf life. Harvesting Fully developed & compact heads are cut from the stalk & loose outer leaves removed before marketing. Yield: 25-50 t/ha depending upon type, cultivar and growing season. Non Heading Type Harvest the fully developed leaves from near the base without injuring the central growing point. Storage
PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS Tip burn: Most common disorder, Ca deficiency results in rotting of leaf margins. results mainly from inhibited Ca absorption or translocation within the plant rather than Ca shortage in the soil. High salt conc. (especially NH4-N) or high moisture tension inhibit Ca absorption from soil and induce deficiency in plant. Shun Fen (1996) described that during tip burn development, the photosynthetic rate decreased & leaf sugar content & electrolyte leakage increased. The studies showed that plasmalemma became invaginated. Finally, soluble pectin content increased markedly & that cell wall lost its integrity. Maroto et al. (1996): Low Ca concentration in young leaves & is precipitated by rapid growth under high temp. & low R.H. Two foliar applications of CCC at 1120 or 2240 ppm combined with CaCl 2 at 2g/lt or 4 applications of CaCl 2 alone reduced the appearance of tip burn. Spraying 5 times with 0.7% CaCl 2 + 50 ppm NAA. Remedy
Very common and appears at the beginning of head formation. On the inner surface of midrib cracks appear & turn brown If deficiency is sever, the growing point dies. Boron deficiency Excess of N may cause disorder: Heavy N application especially as side dressing after head formation causes many small black spots on the surface of midrib on the inner leaves.