2Not a member of cole group but regarded as very closely allied crop due to Similarity in breeding systems,Cultivation practices,Season of growing and other features besides being a member of Brassica vegetables.One of the important vegetables in eastern Asia.Popular in China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan aand Mangolia.Grown little in India and China, - a new vegetableGrown by small farmers due to its short duration.Valuable source of Ca, Crude fibre and vitamin C in the human diet.OriginNative of China
3ClassificationLoose leaved variety (var dissoluta): Terminal bud under developed, forming no leaf bud; rosette leaves oblanceolate, spreading or erect & usually grown in spring and summer in all parts of China.Semi heading variety (var. imfareta): Terminal bud with its outer layer of leaves fairly well developed, forming head with a hollow centre; plants large & tall. Usually grown in autumn.
43. Fluffy topped heading variety (var 3. Fluffy topped heading variety (var. laxa): Terminal bud well developed forming rather a solid head with its leaf tips curling upwards & forming a fluffy top; plants small, rosette leaves obovate & spreading. Usually grown in late summer & autumn.4. Heading variety (var. cephalata): Terminal bud well developed forming a solid head with leaf tips close to over lapping on the top; grown usually either as an early crop for autumn or a late crop for winter.
5SOIL & CLIMATEFertile soil with sufficient moisture supply and in good physical conditionSoil pHCold season crop in tropics and subtropics while in temperate climate, is grown as summer, autumn & spring crop (under protection).Best temperature oC, below which seed stalk may emerge before good heads are produced.Highest yield obtained at temperature 25 oC.
6Nursery Sowing time Varieties Solan Selection Palampur Green Solan Band SarsonChinese Sarson No.1Nursery Sowing timeLow HillsAugust-OctoberMid HillsJuly-OctoberHigh HillsApril-June
7Spacing Seed rate 600-750 g/ha for nursery raising 2.5 kg/ha for direct sowing.Spacing45cm x 30 cm within and between the rows.
8Manures and Fertilizers FYM: 20 tonnes/ha90 kg N: 50 kg P2O5: 30 kg K2O/haWhole of FYM + P2O5 + K2O + 1/3 N – at the time of transplanting2/3rd N as topdressing after the 2nd & 4th cutting for the quick growth of plants.
9Storage Harvesting Non Heading Type Fully developed & compact heads are cut from the stalk & loose outer leaves removed before marketing.Yield: t/ha depending upon type, cultivar and growing season.Non Heading TypeHarvest the fully developed leaves from near the base without injuring the central growing point.StorageShelf life is 30 days at 5 oC, 60 days at 2.5 oC and 90 – 120 days at 0 oC.Can be stored several weeks at 0 oC and 95% RH under CA conditions.Low O2 (2%) in combination with low CO2 (2%) improves shelf life.
10PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS Tip burn: Most common disorder, Ca deficiency results in rotting of leaf margins.results mainly from inhibited Ca absorption or translocation within the plant rather than Ca shortage in the soil.High salt conc. (especially NH4-N) or high moisture tension inhibit Ca absorption from soil and induce deficiency in plant.Shun Fen (1996) described that during tip burn development, the photosynthetic rate decreased & leaf sugar content & electrolyte leakage increased. The studies showed that plasmalemma became invaginated. Finally, soluble pectin content increased markedly & that cell wall lost its integrity.Maroto et al. (1996): Low Ca concentration in young leaves & is precipitated by rapid growth under high temp. & low R.H.RemedyTwo foliar applications of CCC at 1120 or 2240 ppm combined with CaCl2 at 2g/lt or 4 applications of CaCl2 alone reduced the appearance of tip burn.Spraying 5 times with 0.7% CaCl ppm NAA.
11Boron deficiency Excess of N may cause disorder: Very common and appears at the beginning of head formation.On the inner surface of midrib cracks appear & turn brownIf deficiency is sever, the growing point dies.Excess of N may cause disorder:Heavy N application especially as side dressing after head formation causes many small black spots on the surface of midrib on the inner leaves.