5Research Methods: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science Warm-Up: Hi- LOPlease put everything away and clear your desk. You will need a whiteboard and marker per groupGet in a circle and pair upListen to the statement/question read aloudThe student on the teachers right should write a percentage that you think is true and show it to your opponent.The other opponent should then declare if they feel the actual answer is higher or lower than the percentage guessedRepeat, but change writers and guessersWinner moves on, loser steps out of the circleRepeat processThis should be about 10 minish
6Partner Activity True Statements With your partner, come up with three reasons why your statement is true.Share with the classThe importance of the difference between uninformed opinions and examined conclusionsThe importance of the scientific method
7Discussion: What do you know about any of these people? Key PeopleKenneth ClarkMamie Phipps ClarkDaniel KahnemanJames RandiAmos TverskyDiscussion: What do you know about any of these people?
8Key Terms: The Need for Psychological Science Hindsight bias Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many other things) to think that they knew it all along.Critical thinkingFour key elements:Examines assumptionsDiscerns hidden valuesEvaluates evidenceAssesses conclusions
9OverconfidenceThe simple fact that we tend to think that we know more than we do.Together with hindsight bias, overconfidence can lead to overestimate our intuition
10The Scientific Attitude Three main componentsCuriositySkepticismHumility
11Key Terms: How do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? TheoryHypothesisOperational definitionReplicationCase studySurveyPopulationRandom sampleNaturalistic observationCorrelationCorrelational coefficientScatterplotIllusory correlationExperimentRandom assignmentDouble-blind procedurePlacebo effectExperimental groupControl groupIndependent variableConfounding variableDependent variable
12Key Terms: Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life: Mode Mean Median RangeStandard deviationNormal curveStatistical significanceFrequently Asked Questions About Psychology:CultureInformed consentdebriefing
13The Scientific Method Theory-– not a “mere hunch” Hypothesis -- Can be confirmed or refutedOperational Definition-–a clear definition of how you are measuringReplication – To determine if repeating the process will produce the same resultOperational definition: An explanation of how variables are measured“Watching violent tv programs makes people aggressive”----Variables need to be operationally defined----What programs will be considered violent? What behaviors will be considered aggressive?*
14The Scientific Method A good theory is useful if it: Effectively organizes a range of self-reports and observationsImplies clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theory
20The Case Study Examines one individual in depth Suggests further study Cannot discern general truths
21The Survey Looks at many cases at once Wording can influence results Random sampling is bestRemember: The best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample (a sample that represents all parts of a population)Be clear on the term population (e.g. all high school students)Note: You can’t compensate for a non-representative sample by just adding more people
22Stratification (NITB) Stratification -- the process of grouping members of the population into relatively homogeneous subgroups before sampling.Every element in the population must be assigned to only one stratum.The strata should not exclude any element of the population.Then random or can be applied within each stratum.Stratified1000 students =Caucasion, 300=AfAm, 200=Latino,Sample= Cauc, 30AA, 20 Latinos*
23Naturalistic Observation Observation that occurs in a natural settingDoes not control factors that may influence behaviorDescribes behavior (does not explain)Does not explain behavior
27 Operational Smile Let’s test the hypothesis “Girls smile more than boys”Remember be:CuriousSkepticalHumbleGet in groups of 4Your Task:Look through the yearbook assigned to youGather data about smiling rates in men and women in the yearbookShare results with classDiscussion: Consensus of a definition of the word “smile”Re-gather Information based on our class definition of smile which should demonstrate the value of a precise operational definition in consistent data gathering.
28QualitativeQuantitative"All research ultimately has a qualitative grounding" - Donald Campbell"There's no such thing as qualitative data. Everything is either 1 or 0" - Fred KerlingerThe aim is a complete, detailed description.The aim is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed.Researcher may only know roughly in advance what he/she is looking for.Researcher knows clearly in advance what he/she is looking for.Recommended during earlier phases of research projects.Recommended during latter phases of research projects.The design emerges as the study unfolds.All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected.Researcher is the data gathering instrument.Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data.Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects.Data is in the form of numbers and statistics.Subjective - individuals� interpretation of events is important ,e.g., uses participant observation, in-depth interviews etc.Objective � seeks precise measurement & analysis of target concepts, e.g., uses surveys, questionnaires etc.Qualitative data is more 'rich', time consuming, and less able to be generalized. Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual detail.Researcher tends to become subjectively immersed in the subject matter.Researcher tends to remain objectively separated from the subject matter.
29Entry Task http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDo7jwikqqI This shows some of the limitations of qualitative and quantitative research methods…What problems were there with these approaches?
31Correlation Correlation How well does A predict B Positive versus negative correlationHeight and weight (+)Exercise and weight (-)Correlation coefficientStrength of the correlation-1.0 to +1.0Weak correlation=0Scatterplot
32Positive or Negative?The more young children watch TV, the less they read.The more sexual content teens see on TV, the more likely they are to have sexThe more HFCS Americans consume, the more obese they becomeThe longer children are breast-fed, the greater their later academic achievementThe more often adolescents eat breakfast, the lower their body mass-,+, +, -*
47Perceiving Order in Random Events Comes from our need to make sense out of the worldCoin flipPoker handDice and Bell Curve
48Illusory Correlations Perceived non-existent correlationA random coincidence
49Key Terms: Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life: Mode Mean Median RangeStandard deviationNormal curveStatistical significanceFrequently Asked Questions About Psychology:CultureInformed consentdebriefing
50Unit 2: Research Methods: Case Studies and Critical thinking Today’s Objective:Become familiar with the concept of case studies by viewing “Genie” and reviewing questions that follow the videoToday’s Plans:Watch “Genie”Critical Thinking Assignment (DUE FRIDAY)
51Case StudiesCase Study- An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.Watch the video case study on “Genie- Secret of a Wild Child” and answer 5 of the 10 questions thoroughly.DUE FRIDAY!!!Genie- Secret of a Wild Child
52Experimentation: Key Questions What is the difference between random sampling and random assignment?What is the difference between a single blind and a double-blind experiment?What is the difference between experimenter and participant bias?What is the difference between a dependent and independent variable?What is a confounding variable?
53Experimentation Groups Hawthorne Effect Being selected to be in a group of people to participate in an experiment will affect the performance of that group regardless of what is done to those individuals.Experimental GroupReceives the treatment (independent variable)Control GroupDoes not receive the treatment
54ExperimentationDouble-blind study: A research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control group.Placebo: an inert substance used in controlled experiments to test the effectiveness of another substance.Placebo effect: any effect that seems to be a consequence of administering a placebo.
55= Variables Hypothesis: An educated guess Variables: Factors that are measured or controlled in a scientific study.Independent Variable: Factor that researchers manipulate so that they can determine its effect (IF)Dependent Variable: depends on the independent variable. It is the result of change in the independent variable. (THEN)WARM TEMPERATURE CAUSES AGGRESSION IN HUMANS.=
56ExperimentationIndependent and Dependent Variables Independent Variable – the factor that is manipulated (Ex. Eating breakfast)Confounding variable – anything that can throw off the results (Ex. Amount of sleep)Dependent Variable -- What is being measured (School performance)
57ExperimentsManipulation of an independent variable under carefully controlled conditions to see whether any changes occur in the dependent variableHarlow’s monkeyScaring Harlow’s monkey
61Describing Data: Measures of Central Tendency Mode (occurs the most)Mean (arithmetic average)Median (middle score)
62Something silly to help you remember statistics MeanMedianModeShow Mean, Median, Mode video….
63Describing Data: Measures of Variability RangeStandard DeviationHow to calculate:
64Describing Data: Measures of Variability Normal Curve (bell shaped)
65Making Inferences: When Is an Observed Difference Reliable? Representative samples are better than biased samplesLess-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variableMore cases are better than fewerInferential StatisticsStatistics that can determine whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was selected.
66Making Inferences: When Is a Difference Significant? Statistical significanceThe averages are reliableThe differences between averages is relatively largeDoes imply the importance of the resultsScientists have decided that 5 percent (.05) is the cutoff for statistically significant results. This means that in a statistically significant experimental result, there is less than a 5% chance that the results occurred by chance*
67Reliability vs. validity When replicatedWhen consistentIf the researcher conducted the same research in the same way, the researcher would get similar results.Measures what the researcher set out to measure; it is accurate
68Psychology AppliedCan laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?The resulting principles, not the research findings, help explain behavior
69Psychology Applied Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender? Influence of culture on behaviorGenderMore similarities than differences
70Ethics in Research Ethics in animal research Clear scientific purpose Care for and house animals in a humane wayAcquire animal subjects legallyDesign experimental procedures that employ the least amount of suffering feasible
71Ethics in Research Ethics in human research 1. Informed consent 2. Protect from harm and discomfort3.Maintain confidentiality4. Debriefing
73Unit 2 Research Methods: Descriptive Statistics Today’s Objective:Practice terminology of descriptive statisticsToday’s Plan:Psych Sim in computer Lab- 3 to complete, try to get 2 doneSign up for AP PSYCH resourcesEDMODOTurnitin.comSocrativePrint out the worksheets that go along with the psych sims from our teacher resource- see with links
74FRQ-Friday: Sample test Today’s Objective:Understand the scoring of an FRQToday’s Plans:Review sample FRQ’s
75Scoring Practice Get into groups of three Review scoring criteria Read the sample essay and reach consensus to assign a score to the essayBe prepared to defend your answer.