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Thinking Critically With Psychological Science

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1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science
Unit 2 Research Methods Thinking Critically With Psychological Science

2 Unit 2: Research Methods
Today’s Objective: Understand Key terms and Key People Today’s Plans: Hi-Lo Activity Graphic Organizer (test tool) Key People Key Terms


4 1. F, 2. T, 3. F, 4.T, 5. F, 6. T, 7. F, 8. T, 9. F, 10. T *

5 Research Methods: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science
Warm-Up: Hi- LO Please put everything away and clear your desk. You will need a whiteboard and marker per group Get in a circle and pair up Listen to the statement/question read aloud The student on the teachers right should write a percentage that you think is true and show it to your opponent. The other opponent should then declare if they feel the actual answer is higher or lower than the percentage guessed Repeat, but change writers and guessers Winner moves on, loser steps out of the circle Repeat process This should be about 10 minish

6 Partner Activity True Statements
With your partner, come up with three reasons why your statement is true. Share with the class The importance of the difference between uninformed opinions and examined conclusions The importance of the scientific method

7 Discussion: What do you know about any of these people?
Key People Kenneth Clark Mamie Phipps Clark Daniel Kahneman James Randi Amos Tversky Discussion: What do you know about any of these people?

8 Key Terms: The Need for Psychological Science Hindsight bias
Tendency upon hearing about research findings (and many other things) to think that they knew it all along. Critical thinking Four key elements: Examines assumptions Discerns hidden values Evaluates evidence Assesses conclusions

9 Overconfidence The simple fact that we tend to think that we know more than we do. Together with hindsight bias, overconfidence can lead to overestimate our intuition

10 The Scientific Attitude
Three main components Curiosity Skepticism Humility

11 Key Terms: How do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions?
Theory Hypothesis Operational definition Replication Case study Survey Population Random sample Naturalistic observation Correlation Correlational coefficient Scatterplot Illusory correlation Experiment Random assignment Double-blind procedure Placebo effect Experimental group Control group Independent variable Confounding variable Dependent variable

12 Key Terms: Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life: Mode Mean Median
Range Standard deviation Normal curve Statistical significance Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology: Culture Informed consent debriefing

13 The Scientific Method Theory-– not a “mere hunch”
Hypothesis -- Can be confirmed or refuted Operational Definition-–a clear definition of how you are measuring Replication – To determine if repeating the process will produce the same result Operational definition: An explanation of how variables are measured “Watching violent tv programs makes people aggressive”----Variables need to be operationally defined----What programs will be considered violent? What behaviors will be considered aggressive? *

14 The Scientific Method A good theory is useful if it:
Effectively organizes a range of self-reports and observations Implies clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theory

15 Research in Psychology
The Scientific Method





20 The Case Study Examines one individual in depth Suggests further study
Cannot discern general truths

21 The Survey Looks at many cases at once Wording can influence results
Random sampling is best Remember: The best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample (a sample that represents all parts of a population) Be clear on the term population (e.g. all high school students) Note: You can’t compensate for a non-representative sample by just adding more people

22 Stratification (NITB)
Stratification -- the process of grouping members of the population into relatively homogeneous subgroups before sampling. Every element in the population must be assigned to only one stratum. The strata should not exclude any element of the population. Then random or can be applied within each stratum. Stratified 1000 students =Caucasion, 300=AfAm, 200=Latino, Sample= Cauc, 30AA, 20 Latinos *

23 Naturalistic Observation
Observation that occurs in a natural setting Does not control factors that may influence behavior Describes behavior (does not explain) Does not explain behavior

24 Qualitative vs. quantitative research method

25 Impact of Cell Phones Warm-Up: Watch the video and consider this question… How do cellphones impact us from sociocultural and evolutionary psychology points of view?

26 Unit 2: research Methods: operational definition
Today’s Objective: Understand Operational Definition Today’s Plans: Operational Smile Key Terms- Graphic Organizer

27  Operational Smile  Let’s test the hypothesis “Girls smile more than boys” Remember be: Curious Skeptical Humble Get in groups of 4 Your Task: Look through the yearbook assigned to you Gather data about smiling rates in men and women in the yearbook Share results with class Discussion: Consensus of a definition of the word “smile” Re-gather Information based on our class definition of smile which should demonstrate the value of a precise operational definition in consistent data gathering.

28 Qualitative Quantitative "All research ultimately has  a qualitative grounding" - Donald Campbell "There's no such thing as qualitative data.  Everything is either 1 or 0" - Fred Kerlinger The aim is a complete, detailed description. The aim is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. Researcher may only know roughly in advance what he/she is looking for. Researcher knows clearly in advance what he/she is looking for. Recommended during earlier phases of research projects. Recommended during latter phases of research projects. The design emerges as the study unfolds. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Researcher is the data gathering instrument. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data. Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects. Data is in the form of numbers and statistics. Subjective - individuals� interpretation of events is important ,e.g., uses participant observation, in-depth interviews etc. Objective � seeks precise measurement & analysis of target concepts, e.g., uses surveys, questionnaires etc. Qualitative data is more 'rich', time consuming, and less able to be generalized.  Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual detail. Researcher tends to become subjectively immersed in the subject matter. Researcher tends to remain objectively separated from the subject matter.

29 Entry Task
This shows some of the limitations of qualitative and quantitative research methods… What problems were there with these approaches?

30 Key Terms Continued: Finish Graphic organizer
Theory Hypothesis Operational definition Replication Case study Survey Population Random sample Naturalistic observation Correlation Correlational coefficient Scatterplot Illusory correlation Experiment Random assignment Double-blind procedure Placebo effect Experimental group Control group Independent variable Confounding variable Dependent variable

31 Correlation Correlation How well does A predict B
Positive versus negative correlation Height and weight (+) Exercise and weight (-) Correlation coefficient Strength of the correlation -1.0 to +1.0 Weak correlation=0 Scatterplot

32 Positive or Negative? The more young children watch TV, the less they read. The more sexual content teens see on TV, the more likely they are to have sex The more HFCS Americans consume, the more obese they become The longer children are breast-fed, the greater their later academic achievement The more often adolescents eat breakfast, the lower their body mass -,+, +, - *

33 Correlation

34 Correlation

35 Correlation

36 Correlation

37 Correlation

38 Correlation -.70 is stronger than a +.65 *

39 Correlation

40 Correlation

41 Correlation

42 Correlation and Causation
Correlation helps predict Critical piece to remember: Correlation does not equal causation!!!





47 Perceiving Order in Random Events
Comes from our need to make sense out of the world Coin flip Poker hand Dice and Bell Curve

48 Illusory Correlations
Perceived non-existent correlation A random coincidence

49 Key Terms: Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life: Mode Mean Median
Range Standard deviation Normal curve Statistical significance Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology: Culture Informed consent debriefing

50 Unit 2: Research Methods: Case Studies and Critical thinking
Today’s Objective: Become familiar with the concept of case studies by viewing “Genie” and reviewing questions that follow the video Today’s Plans: Watch “Genie” Critical Thinking Assignment (DUE FRIDAY)

51 Case Studies Case Study- An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. Watch the video case study on “Genie- Secret of a Wild Child” and answer 5 of the 10 questions thoroughly. DUE FRIDAY!!! Genie- Secret of a Wild Child

52 Experimentation: Key Questions
What is the difference between random sampling and random assignment? What is the difference between a single blind and a double-blind experiment? What is the difference between experimenter and participant bias? What is the difference between a dependent and independent variable? What is a confounding variable?

53 Experimentation Groups Hawthorne Effect
Being selected to be in a group of people to participate in an experiment will affect the performance of that group regardless of what is done to those individuals. Experimental Group Receives the treatment (independent variable) Control Group Does not receive the treatment

54 Experimentation Double-blind study: A research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control group. Placebo: an inert substance used in controlled experiments to test the effectiveness of another substance. Placebo effect: any effect that seems to be a consequence of administering a placebo.

55 = Variables Hypothesis: An educated guess
Variables: Factors that are measured or controlled in a scientific study. Independent Variable: Factor that researchers manipulate so that they can determine its effect (IF) Dependent Variable: depends on the independent variable. It is the result of change in the independent variable. (THEN) WARM TEMPERATURE CAUSES AGGRESSION IN HUMANS. =

56 ExperimentationIndependent and Dependent Variables
Independent Variable – the factor that is manipulated (Ex. Eating breakfast) Confounding variable – anything that can throw off the results (Ex. Amount of sleep) Dependent Variable -- What is being measured (School performance)

57 Experiments Manipulation of an independent variable under carefully controlled conditions to see whether any changes occur in the dependent variable Harlow’s monkey Scaring Harlow’s monkey

58 M&m’s

59 Experimental Design

60 Experimental Design

61 Describing Data: Measures of Central Tendency
Mode (occurs the most) Mean (arithmetic average) Median (middle score)

62 Something silly to help you remember statistics
Mean Median Mode Show Mean, Median, Mode video….

63 Describing Data: Measures of Variability
Range Standard Deviation How to calculate:

64 Describing Data: Measures of Variability
Normal Curve (bell shaped)

65 Making Inferences: When Is an Observed Difference Reliable?
Representative samples are better than biased samples Less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable More cases are better than fewer Inferential Statistics Statistics that can determine whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was selected.

66 Making Inferences: When Is a Difference Significant?
Statistical significance The averages are reliable The differences between averages is relatively large Does imply the importance of the results Scientists have decided that 5 percent (.05) is the cutoff for statistically significant results. This means that in a statistically significant experimental result, there is less than a 5% chance that the results occurred by chance *

67 Reliability vs. validity
When replicated When consistent If the researcher conducted the same research in the same way, the researcher would get similar results. Measures what the researcher set out to measure; it is accurate

68 Psychology Applied Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? The resulting principles, not the research findings, help explain behavior

69 Psychology Applied Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender?
Influence of culture on behavior Gender More similarities than differences

70 Ethics in Research Ethics in animal research Clear scientific purpose
Care for and house animals in a humane way Acquire animal subjects legally Design experimental procedures that employ the least amount of suffering feasible

71 Ethics in Research Ethics in human research 1. Informed consent
2. Protect from harm and discomfort 3.Maintain confidentiality 4. Debriefing

72 Counting Shoes Activity

73 Unit 2 Research Methods: Descriptive Statistics
Today’s Objective: Practice terminology of descriptive statistics Today’s Plan: Psych Sim in computer Lab- 3 to complete, try to get 2 done Sign up for AP PSYCH resources EDMODO Socrative Print out the worksheets that go along with the psych sims from our teacher resource- see with links

74 FRQ-Friday: Sample test
Today’s Objective: Understand the scoring of an FRQ Today’s Plans: Review sample FRQ’s

75 Scoring Practice Get into groups of three Review scoring criteria
Read the sample essay and reach consensus to assign a score to the essay Be prepared to defend your answer.

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