2Trophic structure and food chains Trophic structure is shows the different feeding relationships in an ecosystem.A food chain shows trophic levels and indicates the flow of energy in the feeding relationship.In a food chain, the arrows always point in the direction of energy flow.
3Food chain in a Taiga forest Secondary consumerPrimary consumerProducerWhat would you call the trophic level of something that ate the lynx?Sun
8Aquatic EcosystemsWhen we eat fish, we tend to consume at a higher trophic level than when we consume other animals.The fish that we tend to eat is high on the food chain…phytoplankton --> zooplankton--> sprat--> cod--> us…
9Tertiary consumers Microorganisms and other detritivores Secondary LE 54-2TertiaryconsumersMicroorganismsand otherdetritivoresSecondaryconsumersPrimary consumersDetritusPrimary producersHeatKeyChemical cyclingSunEnergy flow
10Energy flow in ecosystems The energy in an ecosystem generally starts with the sun.Plants and other organisms use that to make food through photosynthesis.Energy is then transferred up the food chain.Energy flow
11Why a pyramid?Between the trophic levels, about 90% of the energy is lost to the environment, usually as heat.Energy lost as heat
13More on pyramids Three types of pyramids you should know Pyramid of numbersPyramid of biomassPyramid of production
14Pyramids of NumbersThe size of each block is proportional to the number of individual organisms present in that trophic level.Because of the drop in energy at each trophic level, the number of predators is generally much lower than the trophic level below.
16Pros and cons Pros Cons Easy method to give overview Good for comparing changes in population numbers over different times/seasonsConsAll organisms are included regardless of size or energy contained (a beetle takes up as much room as a hippo)Where to assign omnivores?
17Pyramids of BiomassEach tier represents the standing crop (total dry weight of all organisms) in one trophic level.Most biomass pyramids narrow sharply from primary producers at the base to top-level carnivores at the apex because energy transfers between trophic levels are so inefficient. Shown in grams per meter squared (gm-2) or sometimes in Joules (J).
19Pros and consProsTakes into account size, so beetles don’t take up as much room as a hippo, better representing the energy in each.ConsOnly uses samples from populations, so measurement isn’t exact.Organisms must be killed to measure dry mass.Organisms with the same mass might not have the same energy available. (fats v. carbs….)Where to assign omnivores?Time of year biomass is measured can greatly affect mass.
20Inverted Biomass Pyramid Some aquatic ecosystems might show an inverted biomass pyramid because phytoplankton grows, reproduces, and is consumed quickly. Because of this they can support a zooplankton population larger than their own biomass…but the production pyramid is still bottom heavy.
21Pyramids of production The loss of energy with each transfer in a food chain is represented by this pyramid.Trophic levels are stacked in blocks with primary producers forming the foundation of the pyramid.The size of each block is proportional to the net production, expressed in energy units per square meter per year (Jm-2yr-1)
22Pyramid of Production Joules per square meter per year: Jm-2yr-1
23Pros and consProsProductivity are rates of flow, where biomass are stores at one time.Shows actual energy transferred.Energy from solar radiation can be added.ConsDifficult and complex to collect energy data as the rate of biomass production is needed over time.Like other pyramids…where to assign omnivores???
24Feeding the World Which takes more land, eating plants or animals? Which takes more fuel?Which takes more water?
26Toxins in the Environment Humans release many toxic chemicals, including synthetics previously unknown to natureIn some cases, harmful substances persist for long periods in an ecosystemWhen organisms ingest toxins that they can’t excrete or get rid of, they accumulate in their bodies over time (bioaccumulation)One reason toxins are harmful is that they become more concentrated in successive trophic levelsIn biological magnification, toxins concentrate at higher trophic levels, where biomass is lower (biomagnification)
27LE 54-23 Herring gull eggs 124 ppm Lake trout 4.83 ppm Concentration of PCBsSmelt1.04 ppmZooplankton0.123 ppmPhytoplankton0.025 ppm
28Practice 1An ecosystem consists of one oak tree on which herbivores are feeding. These herbivores are prey to 500 spiders and carnivorous insects. Three birds of the same species are eating these spiders and carnivorous insects. The oak tree has a mass of 4000 kg, the herbivores insects have an average mass of 0.05 g, the spiders and carnivorous insects have an average mass of 0.2 g and the three birds have an average mass of 10 g.Construct, to scale, pyramids of numbers and biomass
30Practice 2Assuming an ecological efficiency of 10%, 5%, and 20% respectively, what will be the energy available at the tertiary consumer level (4th trophic level, given a net primary productivity of kJ m-2 yr-1?What percentage is this figure of the original energy value at the primary producer level?
32Practice 3In an aquatic ecosystem, plankton are eaten by minnows, which are eaten by pickerel, which are eaten by cormorants.DDT (a toxin) is introduced into the ecosystem and after ten years is found in the following concentrations. Water ( ), Plankton (0.04), Minnow (0.23), Pickerel (1.33), Cormorant (26.4).How many trophic levels are there in this food chain?How many times more concentrated is the DDT in the body of the cormorant than in the water?
34Describe the habitat, niche, population, community, and ecosystem for one of the species in this diagram.
35Types of relationships between populations CompetitionPredationSymbiosisMutualismCommensalismParasitism.
36CompetitionWhen more than one individual or population tries to use the same limited resource.This picture is hyenas and vultures on the African savannah competing for a carcass.
37Predation When one animal captures and eats another animal for food. This owl is about to make a meal of this mouse.
38Symbiosis Symbiosis is a close relationship between two species. There are many types of symbiosis including mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
39Mutualism When both species benefit from the relationship. These yellow billed oxpeckers are getting a yummy meal of ticks and other bugs, the rhino is getting the itchy, blood- sucking, annoying bugs removed.
40Commensalism When one species benefits and the other is unaffected. Nemo is getting protection from living in the sea anemone, the anemone doesn’t benefit, but it also isn’t bothered.
41ParasitismParasitism is when one species benefits and the other is harmed.Why is this songbird so much smaller than the baby it is feeding? Brown-headed cowbirds lay their eggs in other birds nest so they do the taking care of…the baby cowbirds will go as far as to push the songbird’s babies out of the nest for more food.