2 Energy FlowWithout a constant input of energy, living systems cannot function.
3 ProducersProducers are organisms that capture energy and use it to produce food from inorganic compoundsProducers are also called autotrophs, meaning they can make their own food
4 Types of ProducersPhotoautotroph– organism that uses light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy rich carbohydrates (photosynthesis)Chemoautotroph – organism that make organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions (chemosynthesis)
6 ConsumersOrganisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply because they cannot harness energy directly from the physical environment.Consumers are also called heterotrophs.
7 Types of Consumers Herbivores – obtain energy by eating only plants Carnivores – obtain energy by eating onlyanimalsOmnivores – obtain energy by eating plants and animals
8 Types of ConsumersDetritivore – obtain energy by feeding on plant and animal remains and other dead matterDecomposers – obtain energy by breaking down organic matter
9 Feeding Relationships The relationships between producers and consumers connect organisms into feeding networks based on who eats whom.
10 Food ChainA series of steps on which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
11 Food WebLinks all the food chains in an ecosystem together forming a network of complex interactions
12 Trophic Levels Each step in a food chain or food web Producers make up the first trophic level and consumers make up the second, third or higher.Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy.
14 Ecological PyramidsA diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food webEcologists recognize three types of pyramids: energy, biomass and numbers
15 Energy PyramidOnly about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic levelPart of the energy is lost to the original organism using it. Part of the energy is lost as heat.
22 Ecology: Feeding Relationships Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction (arrows) from the sun or inorganic compounds to producers to consumers.Food chain: diagram that shows simple feeding relationships.Trophic level: each step in a food chainAll food chains start with a producer.
24 Students be careful! Remember: the arrow shows the direction energy flows in anecosystem.In this example, theLeopard seal eats thepenguin and as a result,gets the energy.
25 Ecology: Feeding Relationships A food web is a network of complex feeding relationships that connects multiple food chains.If one species is lost from a food web, all other species are affected.
26 Analyze this food web! What does the mouse receive energy from? What level consumer is the frog?Where does the rabbit’s energy go?How many levels does the mouse occupy?
27 Group Food Web Activity You will be graded on accuracy, neatness, effort, ability to follow directions and organization.Take your time to lay out your squares before you glue down your organisms or draw your arrows.
28 Directions for Food Web The food web must have a key that includes the type of organisms in your web(Color the organism accordingly)Producers – greenCarnivores – redHerbivores – orangeOmnivores – blueDecomposers - brownYou may organize your food web any way you like – but it does need to be organized and make sense!Make sure your arrows are pointing the right direction – the arrow points in the direction of energy flow.