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Warm up 4/8.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm up 4/8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm up 4/8

2 Energy Flow Without a constant input of energy, living systems cannot function.

3 Producers Producers are organisms that capture energy and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds Producers are also called autotrophs, meaning they can make their own food

4 Types of Producers Photoautotroph– organism that uses light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy rich carbohydrates (photosynthesis) Chemoautotroph – organism that make organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions (chemosynthesis)

5 Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis

6 Consumers Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply because they cannot harness energy directly from the physical environment. Consumers are also called heterotrophs.

7 Types of Consumers Herbivores – obtain energy by eating only plants
Carnivores – obtain energy by eating only animals Omnivores – obtain energy by eating plants and animals

8 Types of Consumers Detritivore – obtain energy by feeding on plant and animal remains and other dead matter Decomposers – obtain energy by breaking down organic matter

9 Feeding Relationships
The relationships between producers and consumers connect organisms into feeding networks based on who eats whom.

10 Food Chain A series of steps on which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.

11 Food Web Links all the food chains in an ecosystem together forming a network of complex interactions

12 Trophic Levels Each step in a food chain or food web
Producers make up the first trophic level and consumers make up the second, third or higher. Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy.


14 Ecological Pyramids A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web Ecologists recognize three types of pyramids: energy, biomass and numbers

15 Energy Pyramid Only about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level Part of the energy is lost to the original organism using it. Part of the energy is lost as heat.


17 Biomass Pyramid The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level Usually expressed in terms of grams of organic matter per unit area


19 Pyramid of Numbers The numbers of individual organisms at each trophic level



22 Ecology: Feeding Relationships
Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction (arrows) from the sun or inorganic compounds to producers to consumers. Food chain: diagram that shows simple feeding relationships. Trophic level: each step in a food chain All food chains start with a producer.

23 Feeding Relationships: Food Chain
squid (tertiary consumer) small fish (secondary consumer) zooplankton (primary consumer) algae (producer)

24 Students be careful! Remember: the arrow shows the direction
energy flows in an ecosystem. In this example, the Leopard seal eats the penguin and as a result, gets the energy.

25 Ecology: Feeding Relationships
A food web is a network of complex feeding relationships that connects multiple food chains. If one species is lost from a food web, all other species are affected.

26 Analyze this food web! What does the mouse receive energy from?
What level consumer is the frog? Where does the rabbit’s energy go? How many levels does the mouse occupy?

27 Group Food Web Activity
You will be graded on accuracy, neatness, effort, ability to follow directions and organization. Take your time to lay out your squares before you glue down your organisms or draw your arrows.

28 Directions for Food Web
The food web must have a key that includes the type of organisms in your web (Color the organism accordingly) Producers – green Carnivores – red Herbivores – orange Omnivores – blue Decomposers - brown You may organize your food web any way you like – but it does need to be organized and make sense! Make sure your arrows are pointing the right direction – the arrow points in the direction of energy flow.

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