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The Journey Of Adulthood, 6/e Helen L. Bee & Barbara R. Bjorklund Chapter 2 PHYSICAL CHANGES.

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Presentation on theme: "The Journey Of Adulthood, 6/e Helen L. Bee & Barbara R. Bjorklund Chapter 2 PHYSICAL CHANGES."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Journey Of Adulthood, 6/e Helen L. Bee & Barbara R. Bjorklund Chapter 2 PHYSICAL CHANGES

2 Primary and Secondary Aging Primary aging: aspects of physical changes with age that are universally shared and inevitable, a result of some basic biological process. Secondary aging: the part of the changes with age in physical functioning that is not inevitable but may result from widely shared environmental events. It is particularly difficult to separate the effects of disease from normal aging. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

3 Theories of Primary Aging No single theory can explain all of the changes that occur in primary aging. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Oxidative Damage Genetic limits Caloric Restriction

4 Free radicals: damage DNA. cause lipofuscin, build up in cells that is implicated as a cause of numerous diseases. are inhibited by antioxidants. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Oxidative Damage Theories of Primary Aging

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6 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Genetic limits Theories of Primary Aging Each species has a characteristic maximum life span. Correlation between the longevity of a species and the number of times its cells will divide. Telomeres (lengths of repeating DNA at tips of cells) appear to serve as timekeepers for the organism. Genetic limits may be integral part of normal development for some cells.

7 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Caloric Restriction Theories of Primary Aging Promising explanation of aging. Age-related differences in number of calories metabolized by the body. Dietary restriction shown to increase longevity in lab rats.

8 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Longevity, Life Expectancy, and Life Span Longevity: average expected length of life at any particular time in history, in a particular culture; has increased significantly in most of the world. Life expectancy: refers to the average number of years a person of a given age can still expect to live; has risen dramatically primarily through eradication of most infectious diseases. Life span: refers to the upper boundary of years a given species can expect to live. Despite increases in longevity and life expectancy, life span has not shown much change.

9 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. On average, women live longer than men do. Some explanations: 1) Women are less likely to inherit sex-linked genetic disorders. 2) Women are naturally protected from some diseases. 3) Women survive difficult conditions better. 4) Women are less likely to participate in high risk behaviors. 5) Women are more likely to have safer jobs. 6) Women engage in more health oriented behaviors. Longevity, Life Expectancy, and Life Span

10 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Outward Appearances The Senses Bones and Muscles Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems Brain and Nervous System Immune System Hormonal System Physical Changes over Adulthood

11 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Age-related changes height, weight, skin elasticity, and hair color and loss. Outward Appearances Physical Changes over Adulthood

12 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Vision Hearing Taste and Smell The Senses Physical Changes over Adulthood

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14 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Vision The Senses Gradual loss of dark adaptation, with marked decline after age 60. Cataracts involve the gradual clouding of the lens of the eye, so that images are no longer transmitted sharply to the retina. Glaucoma is a dangerous buildup of pressure inside the eye which can destroy the optic nerve and lead to blindness. No gender differences in visual declines. Vision is the last sense to develop and the first to show signs of aging. Lens thickens and yellows. Pupil loses ability to open in response to reduced light. Lens also loses elasticity interfering with its ability to accommodate. Loss of visual acuity (ability to perceive detail in visual patterns). Presbyopia (reduced visual acuity) can be corrected with glasses. Physical Changes over Adulthood

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16 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Hearing The Senses Hearing loss in higher tones and shortening of the loudness scale. Presbycusis By age 65, ¼ of adults have some significant hearing impairment, and rates rise sharply with age. Men more likely than women to suffer from hearing loss Physical Changes over Adulthood

17 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Taste and Smell The Senses Four basic flavors (salty, bitter, sweet, and sour). Slight decline for salty and bitter, but nor for sweet and sour. Saliva production decreases and this affects taste. Changes in smell are more dramatic. Olfactory ability peaks between ages 20 and 40. Sense of smell drops slightly between ages 40 and 70 and then dramatically after age 70. Physical Changes over Adulthood

18 Muscles Bones and Muscles Significant loss of muscle tissue leads to a reduction in physical strength. Strength training can prevent this loss. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Physical Changes over Adulthood

19 Bones Bones and Muscles Bone marrow gradually disappears from the bones of the arms and legs and becomes concentrated in the bones of the trunk. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Physical Changes over Adulthood

20 Bones Bones and Muscles Calcium is lost from the bones, bone mass is reduced and bones are more brittle and porous. Process begins around age 30. More pronounced in women than men. Osteopenia is moderate bone loss. Osteoporosis is severe bone loss (20% of women over 50, 50% over 80). Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) can prevent the acceleration of bone loss and increases bone mass density. Calcium and Vitamin D are also important for maintaining strong bones. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Physical Changes over Adulthood

21 Bones Bones and Muscles The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Osteoarthritis occurs more frequently in women, older and overweight people. Physical Changes over Adulthood

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23 Maximum oxygen uptake reflects the body’s ability to take in and utilize oxygen during exercise. It peaks in adolescence and declines steadily with age. Varies significantly depending on activity level. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Physical Changes over Adulthood

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25 Loss of brain cells (neurons) in primary aging is less than previously believed. Loss of total number of neurons but not all loss translates to functional decline. Life-long plasticity (new dendrites and pruning). Slowing of transmission across the synapses between neurons. Brain and Nervous System The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Physical Changes over Adulthood

26 B cells make antibodies which react to infectious agents. T cells reject and consume harmful foreign cells. B cells show abnormalities with age, accounts for increase of autoimmune disorders. With age T cells show reduced abilities to fight new infection. Immune function is worsened by psychological stress and depression. Nutritional supplements can enhance immune function. Immune System The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Physical Changes over Adulthood

27 The climacteric is the age-related loss of reproductive ability. Hormonal System In men: 1.Gradual decline in testosterone. 2.Decrease in viable sperm, muscle mass, sexual desire, etc. 3.Decline in sexual response. 4.Erectile dysfunction is associated with age and can be treated with medication. In women: 1.Menopause occurs signaling an end to reproductive abilities. 2.Ovarian failure related to drop in estrogen and changes in progesterone. 3.Average age of menopause is HRT is commonly used with menopausal and postmenopausal women. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Physical Changes over Adulthood

28 Changes in Physical Behavior The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Stamina, Dexterity and Balance Sleep Sexual Activity

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30 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Stamina, Dexterity and Balance Stamina: ability to sustain moderate or strenuous activity over a period of time. Declines due to changes in the circulatory system and muscles. Dexterity: the ability to use the hands or body in a skillful way, is lost as a result of arthritic changes in the joints. Balance: the ability to adapt body position to change also declines with age. Changes in Physical Behavior

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32 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sleep Changes in the neurological system increase likelihood of insomnia. Some sleep problems are due to health problems and medications. Behavior changes can improve sleep (e.g., being active). Changes in Physical Behavior

33 The climacteric is the age-related loss of reproductive ability. Frequency of sexual activity drops from the 20s into late adulthood. This research is limited by reliance on surveys. Factors that affect probability that an older person will have sexual relations: Sexual Activity The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. 1) Physical ability 2) Desire 3) Sexual partner 4) Privacy 5) Other forms of sensual activity Changes in Physical Behavior

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35 The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Genetics Lifestyle Psychosocial Factors Economics Individual Differences in Primary Aging

36 How quickly do we age? How can we disentangle primary and secondary aging? Why do individuals age at different rates and in different ways? Specific experience may affect the rate, or pattern, or physical aging (e.g., exercise). Heredity influences aging. Primary aging and economics. Recurring and Unanswered Questions The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.


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