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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood This multimedia product.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood This multimedia product."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Functional Age Young-Old Appear physically young for their actual age Old-Old Appear physically frail and show signs of decline

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Active Lifespan Around the World

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Life Expectancy Crossover

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Aging and the Nervous System Loss of brain weight accelerates after 60 Neurons lost in visual, auditory and motor areas, cerebellum (balance) Autonomic nervous system less efficient Brain can compensate New fibers New connections Use more parts of brain

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Visual Impairments and Aging Lower visual acuity Poor dim light vision Cataracts Macular degeneration

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Hearing Impairments and Aging

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Aging Systems of the Body Cardiovascular Heartbeat less forceful; slower heart rate, blood flow Vital lung capacity cut by half Immune Effectiveness declines More autoimmune disorders Sleep More difficulties Sleep apnea, insomnia

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Physical Appearance and Mobility Skin thinner, rougher wrinkled, spotted Ears, nose, teeth and hair change Lose height and weight after 60 Muscle strength declines 10–20% by 60–70 30–50% by 70–80 Bone strength drops Less flexibility

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Factors in Good Health and Aging Optimism SES Ethnicity Sex Nutrition Exercise

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sexuality in Late Adulthood Most have sex Married couples: regular, enjoyable sex Singles: 70% men, 50% of women have sex Continue patterns from earlier years “Good sex in the past, good sex in the future” Enjoy activities other than intercourse Men sometimes stop all activities if erection problems

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Primary and Secondary Aging Primary Genetically influenced declines Affect all members of species Even happen if health is good Secondary Declines due to heredity and environment Effects individualized Illnesses and disabilities Arthritis Diabetes Mental disabilities

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Leading Causes of Death in Late Adulthood

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Mental Disabilities in Late Adulthood Dementia - thought and behavior impairments that disrupt everyday life Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease Cerebrovascular dementia Strokes Misdiagnosis and reversible dementia Depression Medication side effects

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Long-Term Care in Late Adulthood More with advanced age Severe disorders Loss of support network Varies by SES, ethnic group Alternatives Home care by family Home care professionals Assisted living

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Selective Optimization with Compensation Select Choose personally valued activities, avoid others Optimize Devote diminishing resources to valued activities Compensate Find creative ways to overcome limitations

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Associative Memory Declines in Late Adulthood Difficulty creating or retrieving links between pieces of information Using memory cues, enhancing meaningfulness of information help

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Remote and Prospective Memory Remote Memory Very long-term recall Autobiographical memory Prospective Memory Remembering to engage in planned actions Use reminders, repetition to help

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Language Processing in Late Adulthood Comprehension changes very little Problems retrieving specific words Use more pronouns Pauses in speech Problems planning what to say Hesitations, false starts, repetition, sentence fragments, disorganized statements

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Wisdom Depth and breadth of practical knowledge Reflect on knowledge Apply knowledge to improve life Listening and evaluating Advice

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Factors Related to Cognitive Change Previous cognitive activity Health Retirement Distance to death Terminal decline Cognitive interventions Memory, problem-solving training

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Lifelong Learning Educational participation increasing Elderhostel College courses Many benefits New facts, ideas New friends Broader world perspective Improved self-image


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