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Development Through the Lifespan

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1 Development Through the Lifespan
Chapter 17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Functional Age Young-Old Old-Old
Appear physically young for their actual age Old-Old Appear physically frail and show signs of decline

3 Active Lifespan Around the World

4 Life Expectancy Crossover

5 Aging and the Nervous System
Loss of brain weight accelerates after 60 Neurons lost in visual, auditory and motor areas, cerebellum (balance) Autonomic nervous system less efficient Brain can compensate New fibers New connections Use more parts of brain

6 Visual Impairments and Aging
Lower visual acuity Poor dim light vision Cataracts Macular degeneration

7 Hearing Impairments and Aging

8 Aging Systems of the Body
Cardiovascular Heartbeat less forceful; slower heart rate, blood flow Vital lung capacity cut by half Immune Effectiveness declines More autoimmune disorders Sleep More difficulties Sleep apnea, insomnia

9 Physical Appearance and Mobility
Skin thinner, rougher wrinkled, spotted Ears, nose, teeth and hair change Lose height and weight after 60 Muscle strength declines 10–20% by 60–70 30–50% by 70–80 Bone strength drops Less flexibility

10 Factors in Good Health and Aging
Optimism SES Ethnicity Sex Nutrition Exercise

11 Sexuality in Late Adulthood
Most have sex Married couples: regular, enjoyable sex Singles: 70% men, 50% of women have sex Continue patterns from earlier years “Good sex in the past, good sex in the future” Enjoy activities other than intercourse Men sometimes stop all activities if erection problems

12 Primary and Secondary Aging
Genetically influenced declines Affect all members of species Even happen if health is good Secondary Declines due to heredity and environment Effects individualized Illnesses and disabilities Arthritis Diabetes Mental disabilities

13 Leading Causes of Death in Late Adulthood

14 Mental Disabilities in Late Adulthood
Dementia - thought and behavior impairments that disrupt everyday life Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease Cerebrovascular dementia Strokes Misdiagnosis and reversible dementia Depression Medication side effects

15 Long-Term Care in Late Adulthood
More with advanced age Severe disorders Loss of support network Varies by SES, ethnic group Alternatives Home care by family Home care professionals Assisted living

16 Selective Optimization with Compensation
Choose personally valued activities, avoid others Optimize Devote diminishing resources to valued activities Compensate Find creative ways to overcome limitations

17 Associative Memory Declines in Late Adulthood
Difficulty creating or retrieving links between pieces of information Using memory cues, enhancing meaningfulness of information help

18 Remote and Prospective Memory
Remote Memory Very long-term recall Autobiographical memory Prospective Memory Remembering to engage in planned actions Use reminders, repetition to help

19 Language Processing in Late Adulthood
Comprehension changes very little Problems retrieving specific words Use more pronouns Pauses in speech Problems planning what to say Hesitations, false starts, repetition, sentence fragments, disorganized statements

20 Wisdom Depth and breadth of practical knowledge Reflect on knowledge
Apply knowledge to improve life Listening and evaluating Advice

21 Factors Related to Cognitive Change
Previous cognitive activity Health Retirement Distance to death Terminal decline Cognitive interventions Memory, problem-solving training

22 Lifelong Learning Educational participation increasing Many benefits
Elderhostel College courses Many benefits New facts, ideas New friends Broader world perspective Improved self-image

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