Presentation on theme: "Bacteria Text (460-468) LAB (instructions in binder) cheese VIDEO Bacteria Part I (worksheet in binder) VIDEO Bacteria Part II (worksheet in binder) Guided."— Presentation transcript:
Bacteria Text ( ) LAB (instructions in binder) cheese VIDEO Bacteria Part I (worksheet in binder) VIDEO Bacteria Part II (worksheet in binder) Guided Notes in binder
Vocabulary endospore, antibiotic, anaerobic, toxin, capsule, pili
The study of bacteria Bacteriology KINGDOM formerly Monera Now 2 Domains Archeabacteria, Eubacteria (more about these later in the year) Only Prokaryotic cells Only Prokaryotic Domains
Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells –Originated 3.5 bybp –No nucleus –Loop of DNA –Few organelles –No compartments –Very small 1-2µm (microns 1/1000 of a millimeter) 1/1,000,000 of a meter Eukaryotic Cells –Evolved 1.5 bybp –Nucleus- holds the DNA –Many organelles Mitochondria Chloroplast Golgi body Endoplasmic reticulum cytoskeleton
I.ANATOMY Draw and label cell with the following structures: pili flagella cell membrane cell wall capsule plasmid, cytoplasm
II Common Bacterial SHAPES
Coccus - sphere shaped Strepto- linear Staphylo- sheet
Bacillus - rod shaped PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA BACILLUS ANTRACIS
Spirillum- spiral shaped Spirillum sp.
Do not write this! There are many ways to classify bacteria The choice depends on what you are interested in studying –Anatomy? –Physiology? –Harm to humans? –Food source?
Archaebacteria- Methanogens –methane producing, found in the gut of animals and swamps Extremehalophiles – salt loving, Dead Sea Thermoacidophiles – hot springs and geysers with acidic water
Eubacteria Recycle nutrients into the soil(break down large molecules “proteins, lipids, carbohydrates”, into simple molecules that can be absorbed by plants) Cyanobacteria also called blue green algae, photosynthetic bacteria
III. CLASSIFICATION by how they obtain energy Photosynthetic- energy from sunlight –Green sulfur bacteria, cyanobacteria, purple sulfur bacteria Chemoautotrophic- energy from electrons in inorganic molecules –Nitrobacter, nitrosomonas Heterotrophic- organic materials from other organisms –Streptomyces, rhizobium WRITE THIS ON THE BACK OF YOUR BACTERIA DRAWING
IV METABOLISM Obligate anaerobes- must live where there is no oxygen Obligate aerobes- must live where there is oxygen Facultative aerobe or facultative anaerobes- can live in either but prefers one.
V DISEASES Clostridium tetani tetanus, produces a toxin ( caused by deep puncture)
C. botulinum botulism, food poisoning (caused by poor canning) Toxin is odorless and tasteless.
Borrelia burgdorferi- Lyme disease (carried by deer ticks) Named for Lyme County Conn.?
Borrelia burgdorferi Lyme Disease
Salmonella sp. Food poisoning (associated with eggs and poultry) Many different species
Yersinia pestis- bubonic plague Black Death changed the course of history Thought to be carried by rats but actually carried by fleas
Yersinia pestis Bubonic Plague (Black Death)
Mycobacterium tuberculosum- tuberculosis (infects the lungs) Now there are some drug resistant strains.
USES Lactobacillus sp. Yogurt,sauerkraut pickles, vinegar Actinomycetes- antibiotics streptomycin »Chemicals that kill other prokaryotic cells
E. coli- in digestive tracts of humans, used in the manufacture of linen from flax (plant) –Excess, wrong location, or wrong species can be dangerous to humans.
Rhizobium sp. Associated with the roots of legumes (pod plants) Helps "fix" atmospheric nitrogen into the plants to help make proteins. Enriches soil, plants are high in protein. Tanning leather, silage (fermented hay increases protein content) “silo”
VII ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE GROWTH Temperature up or down light Oxygen present amount of wastes Food availability presence of chemicals (salt) Amount of water
COMPETITION (secrete toxins) Endotoxins- part of the cell wall is poisonous Exotoxin- chemicals poison is released
VIII LEVELS OF CLEANING RefrigerationSLOWS GROWTH Antiseptic PREVENTS GROWTH DisinfectantDEATH OF PATHOGENS IN A MEDIUM SterileREMOVES ALL FORMS OF LIFE PasteurizationDESTRUCTION BY HEAT OF DISEASE CAUSING ORGANISMS FROM BEVERAGES
IX METHODS OF CLEANING MECHANICAL CHEMICAL RADIATION TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (AUTOCLAVE) ENDOSPORE – protoplasm of bacteria cell becomes encased in a spore coat. Protects from environment -250 C to over 100 C
X FOOD SPOILAGE AND PRESERVATION CANNING SALT CURING DEHYDRATION QUICK FREEZING RADIATION VACCUM PACKAGING CHEMICAL PRESERVATION
Test Topics FOR Tuesday Video Bacteria I and II worksheets Lab results (cheese, bacteria cultures) Notes on Anatomy, classification, diseases, uses, preservation of food and cleaning Text ( ) Vocabulary Bacteria word search
NOTEBOOK CONTENTS Due Tuesday (next test day) C.S. A.S. G.S. Vocabulary 1-19 Notes Labs –Geo Time Scale –Microscopy –Biome Research –Bioethics –Cheese Making –Bacteria Cultures Daily Work –Text Ques pg –Analyzing sci words –Branches of Biology –Chap 12.1 –Chap 12.2 –IV and DV worksheet –Biome Measuring –Bacteria Video Part I –Bacteria Video Part II –Bacteria Word Search Systems
Bacteria Jeopardy Questions Easy 1.Name the shapes of bacteria: 2.Name 3 diseases that bacteria can cause: 3.Name 3 non-dairy products of bacteria: 4.What is the highest form of cleanliness? 5.What are antibiotics used for? 6.Where would you find a thermophilic bacteria? 7.Name the salt loving bacteria. 8.Bacteria that causes lock jaw? 9.What does flagella do? 10.What does refrigeration do to bacteria growth? 11.What is the purpose of an endospore? 12.What does obligate aerobe mean?
Bacteria Jeopardy Questions Easy - Answers 1.Bacillus, coccus, spirillum 2.Ecoli poisioning, tetanus, botulism, lyme disease, salmonella, bubonic plague, tuberculosis, staph infection, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, cholera, 3.Linen, sourdough bread, wine, sewage treatment, antibiotics, helping plants grow (nitrogen fixing), Botox 4.sterilization 5.to inhibit bacteria from reproducing 6.Yellowstone (hot and acidic environment) 7.Halophile 8.Clostridium tetani 9.Aid with movement of bacteria 10.Slows growth 11.Protects bacteria from harsh environment 12.Must live in presence of oxygen
Medium 1.Name the ability to live with or without oxygen. 2.What type of plants have bacteria in their roots? What do they do? 3.Name 3 factors that influence bacterial growth: 4.What was the “black death”? What spread it? 5.Leading all time pathogen killer? 6.Describe 2 main features of the first bacteria. 7.What does an autoclave do? 8.Name 3 ways we preserve food. 9.What are bacterial pilli used for? 10.Do bacteria have DNA? If yes, in what form?
Medium - Answers 1.Facultative anaerobe 2.Legumes…the bacteria help fix nitrogen into the plants to help make proteins for the plant 3.Temperature, oxygen presence, food availability, water, light, amount of wastes, chemicals present 4.Bubonic plague…carried by fleas (not rats) 5.tuberculosis 6.No nucleus, few organelles, very small and simple 7.Uses temperature and pressure to kill all forms of life 8.Canning, freezing, refrigeration, salt curing, dehydration, chemical preservation, radiation 9.Sticking to surfaces 10.Yes, in plasmid or nucleoid form
Difficult 1.What is an endospore? How do we destroy them? 2.Draw a bacteria with all its features. 3.Why are some bacteria antibiotic resistant? 4.First antibiotic discovered? By whom? 5.Why do some bacteria produce antibiotics and yeast produce alcohol? 6.E. coli is in your intestines. Why does it help you there and harm you in other areas of the body? 7.Why are some beverages pasteurized? How is it done? Who invented it?
Difficult - Answers 1.Protoplasm of bacterial cell becomes encased in a spore coat…very hard to kill…you have to autoclave to kill 2.Look at Slide # 5 of this presentation 3.Random mutations that occur 4.Penicillin…Alexander Fleming…penicillin comes from a mold or fungus 5.It is their specific waste product 6.There are different strains of E.coli and they all are different. In some strains, they are okay for the body…in some strains…they can harm the body. 7.It destroys microbes by heat…in things like milk, juices, wines, and malt beverages. Louis Pasteur