Bacteria Single-celled prokaryotes Two kingdoms of bacteria: Archaebacteria Eubacteria
Archaebacteria Methanogens: Anaerobic bacteria (oxygen is a poison) Produce energy by converting H 2 & CO 2 into methane gas. Extreme Halophiles: “Salt-loving" bacteria that use salt to generate ATP for energy. Thermoacidophiles: Live in extremely acidic environments (pH less than 2) that have extremely high temperatures (up to 110 o C). e.g. geothermal springs at Yellowstone National Park.
Eubacteria Clustering Diplo - a prefix used with the shape name to indicate pairing of cells. Strepto - a prefix used with the shape name to indicate chains. Staphylo - a prefix used with the shape name to indicate clusters
Eubacteria Respiration Obligate anaerobes - cannot survive in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. Facultative anaerobes - can live with or without atmospheric oxygen. Obligate aerobes - cannot survive without atmospheric oxygen. MRSA Staphylococcus aureus
The acronym MRSA stands for methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Gram Staining Many antibiotics have no effect on gram-negative bacteria
Parts of a bacteria cell Cell wall - some rigid and others flexible. Cell membrane - same as other cells. Cytoplasm - same as other cells. DNA - a single, circular chromosome (Plasmid) located in the cytoplasm. Bacteria do not have a nucleus. Capsule - a thick, gel-like, protective coating on some bacteria cells. Pili - short, hairlike protein structures on the surface of some bacteria that help them stick to host cells. Flagella - long protein structures that turn to propel some bacteria cells.
Reproduction Asexual, by binary fission - the DNA replicates and then the cell pinches inward and splits in two. Conjugation - two cells exchange a portion of their DNA across a bridge formed between the cells. New material replaces old material in the cell. While this increases the genetic variability in the organisms, it is not true sexual reproduction. Endospores - during adverse conditions, the DNA is encased in a protective envelope. This endospore can lie dormant for years or until favorable conditions return.
Toxins Substances that disrupts the metabolism of other organisms. Endotoxin - made up of lipids and carbohydrates associated with the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. These toxins are some of the strongest poisons known to man and cause violent reactions in host organisms. Exotoxin - proteins produced inside gram-positive bacteria cells and secreted into the environment. These toxins usually produce fever, weakness, and capillary damage.
Antibiotics Drugs that fight bacteria by interfering with their cellular functions. PENICILLIN interferes with cell wall synthesis. TETRACYCLINE interferes with protein synthesis. Many antibiotics are derived from chemicals that bacteria or fungi produce. SULFA DRUGS - antibiotics that are synthesized in laboratories Many Antibiotics are able to affect a wide variety of organisms; they are called BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS.
Antibiotic Resistance When a population of bacteria is exposed to an Antibiotic, the most susceptible DIE. A Few Mutant bacteria that are resistant to the Antibiotic may continue to grow. A Resistant Population then grows from these Mutant Bacteria through reproduction and genetic recombination. These new Population are Antibiotic-Resistant. This has resulted from the Over Use of Antibiotics. Many diseases that were once easy to treat are becoming more difficult to treat.
USEFUL BACTERIA Used in Sewage Treatment, and as Decomposers, breaking down the remains of organic matter in dead plant and animal waste. Recyclers, returning nutrients back to the environment. Food production. Bacteria help us make buttermilk, sour cream, yogurt, cottage cheese, sauerkraut and pickles. Used in industrial chemical production. They produce organic chemicals and fuels. They’re used in the mining of minerals and their products are used as insecticides. Used to help clean up environmental disasters caused by humans, such as chemical and oil spills.