Presentation on theme: "Bacteria Bacteria are small living organisms found almost everywhere on the earth. Bacteria are prokaryotes which are typically unicellular. *There are."— Presentation transcript:
1BacteriaBacteria are small living organisms found almost everywhere on the earth.Bacteria are prokaryotes which are typically unicellular.*There are more bacteria living in your mouth than there are people living on Earth!
2Classification of Bacteria Bacteria are classified into two major Kingdoms : Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.Archaebacteria : live without oxygen, and obtain their energy from inorganic compounds.
3ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria can survive and thrive in “harsh” environments.Examples of archaebacteria include : methane-producting bacteria in cows stomachs, salt-loving bacteria, and heat and acid loving bacteria which thrive in hot springs.
4ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria found in the stomachs of cows allow for the cow to break down and digest the “cellulose” in plant cells. These bacteria help cows turn cellulose into glucose. The bacteria produce methane gas in this process.
5EubacteriaEubacteria differ from Archaebacteria in differences of cell walls, plasma membrane, and sequence of DNA bases.
6Eubacteria Most common bacteria are classified as eubacteria. Eubacteria include the phostosynthetic bacteria called cyanobacteria.
7Bacteria StructureBacteria have different shapes and structures, but structures found in bacteria include :Flagella (some)Capsule (some)Cell wallPlasma membraneDNAPili (some)
8Bacteria Shapes Most bacteria are found in “colonies”. Bacteria can be round, spiral, or rod shaped.Round : coccusSpiral : spirillumRod : bacillusBacteria are also classified into the shape of groups or colonies they form.Diplo : paired cellsStaphylo: grapelike clustersStrepto: long chains
10Bacteria Reproduce by: Conjugation (Sexual)In conjugation one bacteria is able to transfer its DNA into another bacteria by means of a pilus (pili)Binary Fission (Asexual)Binary fission involves the copying of the DNA and the splitting into two new cells.
11Bacteria Reproduction Under optimum conditions bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes.Bacteria reproduction is controlled by various factors including : temperature and food availability.
12Bacteria- Cell Wall Structure Bacteria are divided into two groups based upon the composition of their cell walls.Gram positive : two layers ( lipid, peptidoglycan – sugar/amino acids network)Gram negative : three layers, lipid, peptidoglycan, and lipopolysaccharide.Gram +Gram -
13AntibioticsMost antibiotics aim to break down part of the cell wall to cause water to move in and rupture the bacteria cell.Penicillin is one bacteria to work this way.
14BacteriaOne major role of bacteria in the envrironment is to “fix” nitrogen from the atmosphere into a useable form for plants.Rhizobium bacteria live on legume roots.
15Bacteria - Decomposers Bacteria break down organic matter in dead organisms.These heterotrophic bacteria help recycle nutrients from dead plants and animals back into the soil.Bacteria help break down leaves into useable compounds in the soil.
16BacteriaBacteria also are used to make antibiotics. Some helpful bacteria will produce chemicals which will kill pathogenic bacteria.Streptomycin and erythromycin are a few examples of antibiotics made from bacteria.
17Bacteria Caused Diseases Bacteria can cause the following diseases:TuberculosisPneumoniaStrep throatStaph infectionsScarlet feverSyphilisGonorrheaChlamydiaBoilsTetanusLyme diseaseEar infections
18Bacteria and Disease Bubonic Plague/Black Death. In the 1330’s the bubonic plague originated in China. This disease caused by bacteria spread quickly to England and other parts of present day Europe.This bacteria was mainly found on rodents but fleas are thought to have carried it to humans.
19Bubonic PlagueThe bubonic plague killed an estimated 1/3rd of all Europeans.The bacteria caused boils which started as red bumbs on the skin, and then turned into black dots. “Black Death”.The bacteria Yersinia pestis is thought to have caused this disease.
20Exit Slip 1. What is the name of this bacteria? 3. Draw a staphylobacillus bacterial colony.