Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

How Wolves & People Domesticated Each Other, & How Dogs Helped Enable Civilization Steve Hall Adirondack Wildlife Refuge & Rehab Center www.AdirondackWildlife.org.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "How Wolves & People Domesticated Each Other, & How Dogs Helped Enable Civilization Steve Hall Adirondack Wildlife Refuge & Rehab Center www.AdirondackWildlife.org."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Wolves & People Domesticated Each Other, & How Dogs Helped Enable Civilization Steve Hall Adirondack Wildlife Refuge & Rehab Center 977 Springfield Rd., Wilmington, NY Wolves, Dogs & People

2 Adirondack Wildlife Refuge & Rehab Center Wolves, Dogs & People People in Pre-History People & Wolves Wolves & Dogs Dogs & People Genetics Dogs & Civilization Terry Hawthorne

3 People in Pre-History

4 Setting the Pleistocene Stage 2.5 million to 11,400 years ago Glaciers advanced and retreated eleven times Ocean levels dropped and rose in response Glacial Maximum 20,000 years ago Interglacial Ocean rises restricted intercontinental movement, while enabling intracontinental movement Neanderthals, large mammals and their predators spread across the north Glacial Ocean drop enabled intercontinental movement, while restricting intracontinental movement Neanderthals and wildlife were driven out of the north, placing them in the path of expanding homo sapiens.

5 Genus Homo - Humans Out of Africa Homo Habilis in Africa 2.3 to 1.4 million years ago Homo Erectus: Africa, Asia & Europe 2.2 million to 140,000 years ago Common ancestor with Habilis? Homo Neanderthalensis 150,000 to 30,00 years ago in Europe & Mid East Homo Sapiens African genesis 200,000 years ago Small group of Wanderers became Humanity’s Adams & Eves, leaving Africa ,000 y.a. 1. Homo Sapiens, 2. Neanderthal, 3. Early Hominids, Wiki

6 How Genus Homo Changed History Mastered Fire Warmth Cooking, about 250,000 yrs ago Security from dangerous Predators Short-faced Bear Saber Toothed Cat Dire Wolf Larger social groups made pre-Homo frugivore diet unsustainable Learned to scavenge Meat Hunting game Incredibly Dangerous Made Crude Tools and Weapons Erectus shows evidence of the “Throwing” Shoulder Neanderthals Converse & create totems? Homo Sapiens Developed Language & Animistic Religion – Oral Tradition? Pre Historic Cultures are extremely war-like

7 Dire Wolf Mark Hallett, Paleoart Pleistocene wolf Most common mammalian find in LaBrea Tar Pits Larger than Grey Wolf Driven to extinction about 10,000 years ago

8 People & Wolves

9 Competing & Living with Wolves Competed for meat with Wolves & other predators Learned to steal Meat from Wolves Inadvertently Provided Meat for Wolves and other Scavengers at the Bone Pile Took in occasional orphaned wolf pup Wolves became early warning system for dangerous predators or intruders Provided Meat for Wolves at the Campfire Accidental tactical cooperation during hunting, with each exploiting the other species strengths & tactics Unnatural, forced selection led to dogs Geographical, Topographical & Glacial Isolation drove diversity in humans & their “dogs”

10 Cree at 2 years

11 Cree & Steve

12 Cree & Steve

13 Zeebie

14 Wolves & Dogs

15 Wolves and Dogs Wolf Packs are Families Wolves are territorial Wolf packs are hierarchical Dogs are like Wolves. Emotionally Transparent Living in the Moment Dreams & Actions Cats and Dogs Wolves are like People. Mom & Dad are the “Breeding Pair” Dogs are like Us.

16 Dogs & People

17 Dogs & People Dmitri Belyaev 1959 experiment with selecting & breeding tame silver foxes Less adrenaline in Tamer foxes Shorter limbs & tails Floppy ears & curly tails Left gaze bias in both Humans & Dogs Sympathetic bias towards infant faces Neotonous selection for breeding Oxytocin release in dogs & owners Heart attack survival & occurrence Wolfs bark or “woof” as a warning Dogs developed barking to communicate with us 500 million dogs in the world, about 500k wolves Silver Fox, Wiki

18 Dogs & People Natural Selection: Survivors Breed Unnatural selection, or “Eugenics”: Selected Traits Predominate & Become Exaggerated Decline of nature’s fitness restrictions allows alternate phenotypes, or “funny” looking dogs, to survive and breed Dogs were selected for cooperation, for responding to our social queues Dog’s olfactory orientation married to our visual orientation Tandem Repeaters more prevalent in Canids Physical Traits may be controlled by fewer genes, making selective breed alteration easier to achieve… …..While messing up pure breeds: 1 in 4 have genetic issues with recessive genes expressed. Independence from seasonal weather affects estrus frequency 80% of breeds developed in last 130 years

19 DNA (Template) → RNA (Codon; sequence of 3 nucleotides) → Amino acid(s) → Polypeptide (Protein) Genetics

20 The Speed of Evolution via Natural or Unnatural Selection Increases as the Rate of Mutations Increase Between Each Breeding With Regards to Canines, a high rate of mutations occurs due to: Tandem Repeaters Repeatable DNA sequences with a relatively high rate of mutations Canids have a much higher rate of tandem repeaters than other carnivores, and most other mammals SINE Elements Elements that leave one chromosomal location and insert themselves into another Canids have at least 11,000 SINE elements, humans have less than 1,000

21 How to cause a mutation 101: 1. Change in DNA Sequence 2. Change in mRNA Codon 3. Change in Amino Acid Produced 4. Change in Protein Structure (Mutant Protein) *The mutant protein may cause: 1.No change 2.Different physical trait 3.Improved function - Evolutionary advantage 4.Reduced function - Evolutionary disadvantage 5.Uncontrolled cellular division - Cancer

22 Zeebie

23 Alex & Zeebie

24 Alex & Zeebie

25 Dogs & Civilization Hunting, security, load pulling, pest control, scavenging, food

26 Stages of Civilization Years agoPeopleWolves & Dogs 135,000Nomadic groups - Cro Magnon Hunter- Gatherer Wolf 1 st domesticated animal, Hunting, security, pest control & scavenging 45,000 – 14,000 Earliest settlementsWolf-dogs Hunting, security, load pulling, pest control, scavenging, food 13,000Hunter- GathererOldest “dog” bones that were not a wolf 9,000Plant Domestication – Fig, WheatHunting, security, load pulling, pest control, scavenging, food 8,500Animal Domestication – sheep, cat, goatsShepherding, hunting, security, pest control, scavenging, food 6,000Agriculture provides surplus food & work, leading to trade, as well as…. Shepherding, hunting, security, pest control, scavenging, food 5,000Towns & Cities, rise of Middle & Leisure classes Shepherding, hunting, security, pest control, scavenging, Working Dogs, food 150Modern AgeWorking Dogs & Pets, Breeding explosion, food

27 Plant Domestication Table

28 Animal Domestication Table

29 Alex with Cree & Zeebie

30 Alex & Zeebie

31 Zeebie

32 References & Interesting Information

33 Family Album

34 Cree & Zeebie

35 Cree Puppy Shots

36 Cree at 6 months

37 Cree at 6 months

38 Cree at 2 years

39 Cree at 3 years

40 Zeebie at 10 months

41 Zeebie at 16 months

42 Zeebie at 18 months

43 Cree & Zeebie with Alex Say Goodnight Boys!

44 Thank You! Adirondack Wildlife Refuge & Rehab Center 977 Springfield Rd., Wilmington, NY Wolf-Man


Download ppt "How Wolves & People Domesticated Each Other, & How Dogs Helped Enable Civilization Steve Hall Adirondack Wildlife Refuge & Rehab Center www.AdirondackWildlife.org."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google