Presentation on theme: "1 The Peopling of the World, Prehistory–2500 B.C."— Presentation transcript:
11 The Peopling of the World, Prehistory–2500 B.C. QUIT1CHAPTERThe Peopling of the World, Prehistory–2500 B.C.Chapter OverviewTime LineSECTION1Human Origins in AfricaGRAPHSECTION2Humans Try to Control NatureMAPSECTION3Patterns of Change: CivilizationVisual Summary
21 The Peopling of the World, Prehistory–2500 B.C. HOME1CHAPTERThe Peopling of the World, Prehistory–2500 B.C.Chapter OverviewHuman beings first emerge in East Africa. As they evolve, they develop complex technology and spread over most of the world. In some areas, people develop agriculture and settled villages, some of which eventually grow into complex cities and develop the five traits of civilization.
31 The Peopling of the World, Prehistory–2500 B.C. HOME Time Line CHAPTERThe Peopling of the World, Prehistory–2500 B.C.Time Line4,000,000 B.C. First hominids appear in Africa.1,600,000 B.C. Homo erectus appears.8000 B.C. Neolithic Age begins; first agriculture takes place.2600 B.C. City of Ur flourishes in Sumer.4,000,000 B.C.2500 B.C.2,500,000 B.C. Paleolithic Age begins.40,000 B.C. Cro-Magnons appear.3000 B.C. Bronze Age begins in Mesopotamia.
4Human Origins in Africa HOME1Human Origins in AfricaKey IdeaThe first hominids emerge in East Africa about 3.6 million years ago. They gradually develop large brains and learn to make tools and use fire, which allows them to spread over the earth.OverviewAssessment
5Human Origins in Africa HOME1Human Origins in AfricaTERMS & NAMESOverview• artifact• culture• hominid• Paleolithic Age• Neolithic Age• technology• Homo sapiensMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWFossil evidence shows that the earliest humans originated in Africa.Early humans’ discoveries helped them survive, grow in numbers, and spread across the globe.Assessment
6Human Origins in Africa HOME1Human Origins in AfricaSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Listthe advances, discoveries, and inventions of hominids.AustralopithecinesHomo erectusNeanderthalsCro-MagnonsUpright walking, opposable thumbToolmaking, mastery of fire, languageBurial rights, care of their disabled, building of sheltersAdvanced hunting and language skillscontinued . . .
7Human Origins in Africa HOME1Human Origins in AfricaSection1Assessment2. How do recent findings keep revising knowledge of the prehistoric past?THINK ABOUT• modern scientific methods• the way various species of hominids are classified• dates relating to hominidsANSWERPossible Responses:• By providing more accurate dates relating to when and where various hominids originatedBy providing scientific evidence supporting how hominids are classified into different speciescontinued . . .
8Human Origins in Africa HOME1Human Origins in AfricaSection1Assessment3. Which of the following skills—toolmaking, the use of fire, or the development of language—do you think gave hominids the most control over their environment? Why? THINK ABOUT• the kinds of tools early humans developed• the various uses of fire• the benefits of languageANSWERPossible Responses:• Toolmaking, because it enabled hominids to hunt game and build shelters.Fire, because it allowed hominids to survive in cold climates.Language, because it helped hominids coordinate hunts and other tasks.End of Section 1
9Humans Try to Control Nature HOME2Humans Try to Control NatureGRAPHKey IdeaPeople gradually give up hunting and gathering and learn to cultivate crops, domesticate animals, and live in settled villages. Some villages grow and prosper, developing complex social and economic systems that set the stage for the development of civilization.OverviewAssessment
10Humans Try to Control Nature HOME2Humans Try to Control NatureGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• nomad• hunter-gatherer• Neolithic Revolution• slash-and-burn farming• domesticationMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe development of agriculture spurred an increase in population and the growth of a settled way of life.New methods for obtaining food and the development of technology laid the foundations for modern civilizations.Assessment
11Development of Agriculture HOME2Humans Try to Control NatureGRAPHSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the effects of the development of agriculture.Development of AgricultureRise in populationEmergence of farming villagesMore available foodMore cultural developmentsNew farming toolsMore stable communitiescontinued . . .
12Humans Try to Control Nature HOME2Humans Try to Control NatureGRAPHSection2Assessment2. Why do you think the development of agriculture occurred around the same time in several different places?THINK ABOUT• the migrations of early peoples• changes in the earth’s climate• a rise in human populationANSWERPossible Responses:• Global warming trends resulted in longer growing seasons; a rich supply of grain helped support a population boom.A rise in population placed pressure on hunter-gatherers, who had migrated throughout the world, to find new sources of food.End of Section 2
13Civilization Key Idea CASE STUDY: Ur in Sumer 3 HOME3CivilizationPATTERNSOF CHANGECASE STUDY: Ur in SumerMAPKey IdeaLarge cities develop well-defined social systems and powerful institutions. Eventually they develop the five characteristics of civilization. One of the first cities to develop civilization is Ur in Sumer.OverviewAssessment
14Civilization Overview CASE STUDY: Ur in Sumer 3 • civilization HOME3CivilizationPATTERNSOF CHANGECASE STUDY: Ur in SumerMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• civilization• specialization• artisan• institution• scribe• cuneiform• Bronze Age• barter• zigguratMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWProspering agricultural villages, food surpluses, and new technology led to the rise of civilizations.Contemporary civilizations share the same character-istics typical of ancient civilizations.Assessment
15Civilization 3 CASE STUDY: Ur in Sumer 3 HOME3CivilizationPATTERNSOF CHANGECASE STUDY: Ur in SumerMAPSection3Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the five characteristics of civilization and give an example from Ur.Example from UrCharacteristics of Civilization188.8.131.52.5.Advanced CitiesUr’s population of about 30,000 peopleSpecialized WorkersTraders, artisans, and scribesComplex InstitutionsReligion under the authority of priestsRecord KeepingCuneiform tabletsAdvanced TechnologyIrrigation systemscontinued . . .
16Civilization 3 CASE STUDY: Ur in Sumer 3 HOME3CivilizationPATTERNSOF CHANGECASE STUDY: Ur in SumerMAPSection3Assessment2. In what ways does the ziggurat of Ur reveal that Sumerians had developed an advanced civilization?THINK ABOUT• the skills required to build the monument• the various purposes of the ziggurat• its locationANSWERPossible Responses:Builders and engineers in Ur had the advanced technology to design a complex building.Religion played an important role in people’s lives.Ur was an advanced city.End of Section 3