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Position of women in society and labour market Case study: Bulgaria.

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Presentation on theme: "Position of women in society and labour market Case study: Bulgaria."— Presentation transcript:

1 Position of women in society and labour market Case study: Bulgaria

2 General data on the position of women in the society Political tradition, Constitutional rights: Political tradition, Constitutional rights: Tarnovo Constitution passive voting right for the women; Tarnovo Constitution passive voting right for the women; The Constitution from 1947: active and passive voting right for all over 18 years of age; Chapter of basic rights and duties proclaims the equality between men and women- par.2 of art.72 to the right to work, payment for equal work, right to repose, right to social insurance, pension and education; special protection for working women- mothers and child-care provisions, kindergartens, paid maternity leave The Constitution from 1947: active and passive voting right for all over 18 years of age; Chapter of basic rights and duties proclaims the equality between men and women- par.2 of art.72 to the right to work, payment for equal work, right to repose, right to social insurance, pension and education; special protection for working women- mothers and child-care provisions, kindergartens, paid maternity leave

3 Political tradition, constitutional rights- continuation The Constitution from 1971: reaffirming the voting rights, as well the special protection for working women The Constitution from 1971: reaffirming the voting rights, as well the special protection for working women The Constitution from 1991: reaffirming the political and voting rights for women The Constitution from 1991: reaffirming the political and voting rights for women Working rights, art. 48, par.1 Working rights, art. 48, par.1 Ratified ILO Conventions in gender area: C100- equal remuneration; C111 against discrimination in occupation and professions; C183 on motherhood protection; UN Convention on elimination for all forms of discrimination against women, 1979 Ratified ILO Conventions in gender area: C100- equal remuneration; C111 against discrimination in occupation and professions; C183 on motherhood protection; UN Convention on elimination for all forms of discrimination against women, 1979

4 Special protective rights In case of motherhood: In Labour Code- 365 days paid leave before -45 days and after birth, 2 years paid leave + 1 year unpaid; 3 years recognition of service; child allowances are still very low In case of motherhood: In Labour Code- 365 days paid leave before -45 days and after birth, 2 years paid leave + 1 year unpaid; 3 years recognition of service; child allowances are still very low In a case of pregnancy: Labour Code- protective working environment; also breastfeeding regulations, but problems in implementation because of transformation of labour market In a case of pregnancy: Labour Code- protective working environment; also breastfeeding regulations, but problems in implementation because of transformation of labour market

5 Gender Statistics Demography: 51,6% women share in the population ( , 2003) Demography: 51,6% women share in the population ( , 2003) Birth rate: last position in the world according the World Bank report April 2005: 8 new born at 1000; minus 8,7% growth rate – difference betw. births and dead per 1000 people /2003/; 1,42 child average in family, 2008; at the same time the highest rate in CEE for children born outside the wedlock- 50,2% in 2008 due to some ethnic specifics and new forms of living in a household Birth rate: last position in the world according the World Bank report April 2005: 8 new born at 1000; minus 8,7% growth rate – difference betw. births and dead per 1000 people /2003/; 1,42 child average in family, 2008; at the same time the highest rate in CEE for children born outside the wedlock- 50,2% in 2008 due to some ethnic specifics and new forms of living in a household GNP per capita: from 1985 till 2001 trend minus 12,6%, 217 USD per person in 2001; but 2005 trend to growth of 5,7%; feminization of poverty- alone living elder pensioners, single mothers, disabled women, ethnic groups, women in the border areas GNP per capita: from 1985 till 2001 trend minus 12,6%, 217 USD per person in 2001; but 2005 trend to growth of 5,7%; feminization of poverty- alone living elder pensioners, single mothers, disabled women, ethnic groups, women in the border areas

6 Statistics- gender 60,8% of all population is in the working age 60,8% of all population is in the working age Structure of the working force: 53,1% men, 49,9% female. 54,3% coefficient of employment: 53,0% men, 47% women (MLSP 2004); coefficient of economic activity of women 62,1% in 2008 Structure of the working force: 53,1% men, 49,9% female. 54,3% coefficient of employment: 53,0% men, 47% women (MLSP 2004); coefficient of economic activity of women 62,1% in 2008 Unemployment rate: 12,1% for the first 9 months 2004, 54,7% are women, for women higher in the age group and after 45 years: 15.9% and 13,8% (2003, NSI); in ,4% unemployed in ,3% Unemployment rate: 12,1% for the first 9 months 2004, 54,7% are women, for women higher in the age group and after 45 years: 15.9% and 13,8% (2003, NSI); in ,4% unemployed in ,3% Wage pay gap: women gain 80-87% of the men’s salaries ; 13-15% lower of the men’s payments; impact on the pensions Wage pay gap: women gain 80-87% of the men’s salaries ; 13-15% lower of the men’s payments; impact on the pensions Employment sectors for women: education- 81,1%; health care- 80,2%, financial services/agencies – 71,6%; about 55% of all employed in the services are women Employment sectors for women: education- 81,1%; health care- 80,2%, financial services/agencies – 71,6%; about 55% of all employed in the services are women

7 Position of women in the labour market Decreasing tendency: Index of economic activity- IEA and Index of employment IE Decreasing tendency: Index of economic activity- IEA and Index of employment IE For men: IEA drops with 7,2% for 10 years period: from 60.5% in 1993 to 53.3% in 2003 For men: IEA drops with 7,2% for 10 years period: from 60.5% in 1993 to 53.3% in 2003 For women: IEA of 11% decreases from 55.5% in 1993 to 44.1% in 2003 For women: IEA of 11% decreases from 55.5% in 1993 to 44.1% in 2003

8 Specific problems for women in labour Access for young women in the age group to jobs- dilemma to choose between a job and family; employers participation in enforcement of legally binding rights is required Access for young women in the age group to jobs- dilemma to choose between a job and family; employers participation in enforcement of legally binding rights is required The age group over 45 years: most problematic The age group over 45 years: most problematic

9 Social assistance for women Children’s allowances- very low after the age of 2 of the child– 10 Euro a month dependent on the income of family (110 euro per person) Children’s allowances- very low after the age of 2 of the child– 10 Euro a month dependent on the income of family (110 euro per person) Decreasing number of kindergartens- only 6 of 1000 children are visiting before the age of 6; traditional model of raising children at home (grandmothers, daily care “mothers”); private kitas; community financed- fees to high for some families Decreasing number of kindergartens- only 6 of 1000 children are visiting before the age of 6; traditional model of raising children at home (grandmothers, daily care “mothers”); private kitas; community financed- fees to high for some families General cuts in social expenditures in the state budget – mostly reflects single mothers with small children General cuts in social expenditures in the state budget – mostly reflects single mothers with small children

10 Labour market statistics- women Coefficient of unemployment for ,31% Coefficient of unemployment for ,31% Coefficient of unemployment for women in 2007 is 7,3%; 6,6% for men Coefficient of unemployment for women in 2007 is 7,3%; 6,6% for men Coefficient of economic activity of women is 62,1% 2007; 70,6% for men Coefficient of economic activity of women is 62,1% 2007; 70,6% for men Coefficient of long-term unemployed women is 4,5% 2007; 3,7% of men Coefficient of long-term unemployed women is 4,5% 2007; 3,7% of men The education level of the women is high /share of women amongst the persons with high education is 52,5% /2005/ The education level of the women is high /share of women amongst the persons with high education is 52,5% /2005/

11 Summary, main problems of working women Still low the coefficient of employment for women Still low the coefficient of employment for women Existing horizontal and vertical segregation on gender on the labour market Existing horizontal and vertical segregation on gender on the labour market Pay gap decreasing, but still existing Pay gap decreasing, but still existing The women are frequently affected by the unemployment than men The women are frequently affected by the unemployment than men The poverty is feminised; the women stay long term in poverty than the men bcs. of the lower salaries and later on lower pensions; the old women, single mothers and women from some ethnic groups are highly exposed to social exclusion and poverty The poverty is feminised; the women stay long term in poverty than the men bcs. of the lower salaries and later on lower pensions; the old women, single mothers and women from some ethnic groups are highly exposed to social exclusion and poverty The women in Bulgaria are not willing to work part-time bcs. of the lower payment and of the insufficient number of offers for that kind of jobs on the labour market The women in Bulgaria are not willing to work part-time bcs. of the lower payment and of the insufficient number of offers for that kind of jobs on the labour market

12 Summary, main problems of working women The women in Bulgaria hardly reconcile the professional, personal and family life The women in Bulgaria hardly reconcile the professional, personal and family life The women of ethnic groups /Roma, Moslems/, the women in small town and villages are more often exposed to the home violence The women of ethnic groups /Roma, Moslems/, the women in small town and villages are more often exposed to the home violence The problems of the young women are not on the Agenda of the society The problems of the young women are not on the Agenda of the society The participation of women in politics and in decision making is still low: 22% in the Parliament; 9% women are mayors; women in the local parliaments/governments are 22% The participation of women in politics and in decision making is still low: 22% in the Parliament; 9% women are mayors; women in the local parliaments/governments are 22%


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