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The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1 Chapter 13 Life at Home.

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Presentation on theme: "The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1 Chapter 13 Life at Home."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1 Chapter 13 Life at Home

2 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2 What is the Family?  The U.S. Census Bureau defines family as two or more individuals related by blood, marriage, or adoption living in the same household. According to sociologists, family is defined as a social group whose members are bound by legal, biological, or emotional ties, or a combination of all three.

3 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 3 What is the Family? (cont’d)  They may or may not share a household, but its members are interdependent and have a sense of mutual responsibility for one another’s care. This more open-ended definition takes into account the diversity among today’s families.

4 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4 What is the Family? (cont’d)  An extended family is a large group of relatives, usually including at least three generations living either in one household or in close proximity. Kin is defined as relatives or relations, usually those related by common descent.

5 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 5 What is the Family? (cont’d)  A nuclear family is a heterosexual couple with one or more children living in a single household.

6 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 6 Diversity in Families  Endogamy refers to marriage to someone within one’s social group (race, ethnicity, class, education, religion, region, or nationality), while exogamy refers to marriage to someone from a different social group.

7 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7 Diversity in Families (cont’d)  From the time of slavery through the 1960s, many states had anti-miscegenation laws (the prohibition of inter-racial marriage, cohabitation, or sexual interaction).

8 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8 Diversity in Families (cont’d)  Monogamy, the practice of marrying (or being in a relationship with) one person at a time, is still considered the only legal form of marriage in modern western culture.  Polygamy, a system of marriage that allows people to have more than one spouse at a time, is practiced among some subcultures around the world, but is not widely acknowledged as a legitimate form of marriage.

9 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 9 Diversity in Families (cont’d)  The more common form of polygamy is polygyny, which a system of marriage that allows men to have multiple wives.  Polyandry, a system of marriage that allows women to have multiple husbands, is a more rare form of polygamy.

10 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 10 Sociological Perspectives on the Family  Structural Functionalism views the family as one of the basic institutions that keeps society running smoothly by providing functions such as producing and socializing children, economic production, instrumental and emotional support, and sexual control.

11 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 11 Sociological Perspectives on the Family (cont’d)  Conflict theorists believe that society revolves around conflict over scarce resources, and that conflict within the family is also about the competition for resources: time, energy, and the leisure to pursue recreational activities.

12 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 12 Sociological Perspectives on the Family (cont’d)  Symbolic Interactionists examine the types of social dynamics and interactions that create and sustain families, emphasizing the ways that our experiences of family bonds are socially created rather than naturally existing.

13 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 13 Forming Relationships, Selecting Mates  The process of selecting mates is largely determined by society and two concepts (homogamy and propinquity) tell us a lot about how this process works.

14 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 14 Forming Relationships, Selecting Mates  Homogamy means “like marries like,” and is demonstrated by the fact that we tend to choose mates who are similar to use in class, race, ethnicity, age, religion, education, and even levels of attractiveness. Propinquity is the tendency to marry or have relationships with people in close geographic proximity.

15 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 15 Doing the Work of Family  Many types of work (both paid and unpaid) are necessary to keep a family operating. These tasks can be either instrumental or expressive.

16 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 16 Doing the Work of Family (cont’d)  Instrumental tasks refer to the practical physical tasks necessary to maintain family life (washing dishes and cutting grass).  Expressive tasks refer to the emotional work necessary to support family members (remembering a relative’s birthday or playing with the kids).

17 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 17 Doing the Work of Family (cont’d)  Men and women have always performed different roles to ensure the survival of their families, but these roles were not considered unequal until after the Industrial Revolution.

18 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 18 Doing the Work of Family (cont’d)  Arlie Hochschild’s 1989 study of working couples and parents found that women were indeed working two jobs: paid labor outside the home and unpaid labor inside the home. Hochschild referred to this situation as the second shift (unpaid labor inside the home that is often expected of women after they get home from working at paid labor outside the home).

19 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 19 Family and the Life Course  Children’s experiences are shaped by family size, birth order, presence or absence of parents, socioeconomic status, and other sociological variables. In addition, the presence of children affects the lives of parents.

20 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 20 Family and the Life Course (cont’d)  For example, marital satisfaction tends to decline where there are small children in the house, and a couple’s gendered division of labor tends to become more traditional when children are born.

21 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 21 Family and the Life Course (cont’d)  The American population is aging because of the baby boom generation (the large number of Americans born in the post World War II era). Current life expectancy in the United States is seventy-seven years (with women living an average of five years longer than men).

22 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 22 Family and the Life Course (cont’d)  Currently about 10 percent of the elderly live below the poverty line. Also, the care of the elderly is no longer a primary function of family: over 40 percent of senior citizens will spend time in a nursing home. Finally, coping with the transitions of retirement, widowhood, declining health, and death are central tasks for seniors.

23 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 23 Trouble in Families  People are more likely to be killed or attacked by family members than anyone else. Domestic violence (any physical, verbal, financial, sexual, or psychological behaviors abusers use to gain and maintain power over their victims) is by far the most common form of family violence.

24 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 24 Trouble in Families (cont’d)  Rates of domestic violence are about equal across racial and ethnic groups, sexual orientations, and religious groups.

25 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 25 Trouble in Families (cont’d)  Children and the elderly also suffer at the hands of abusive family members. Child and elder abuse are likely to be underreported, due in part to the relative powerlessness of the victims and the private settings of the abuse.

26 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 26 Trouble in Families (cont’d)  In addition to violence and verbal, emotional, and sexual abuse, children may experience a type of abuse known as neglect (a form of child abuse in which the caregiver fails to provide adequate nutrition, sufficient clothing or shelter, or hygienic and safe living conditions).

27 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 27 Trouble in Families (cont’d)  Another form of child abuse is incest (proscribed sexual contact between family members; a form of child abuse when it occurs between a child and a caregiver). Elder abuse can include violence and abuse, as well as financial exploitation, theft, neglect, and abandonment.

28 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 28 Divorce and Breakups  As of March 2002, the U.S. Census reported that more than 123 million persons were married while about 21 million were divorced. Research indicates that about 50 percent of all first marriages now end in divorce and most who divorce remarry.

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30 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 30 Divorce and Breakups (cont’d)  About 5 percent of all households are occupied by couples who are cohabitating (living together as a romantically involved, unmarried couple).

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32 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 32 Divorce and Breakups (cont’d)  Custody is the physical and legal responsibility or caring for children and is assigned by a court for divorced or unmarried parents. While mothers still disproportionately receive custody, there is a trend toward joint custody. Women are more likely to suffer downward economic mobility after divorce, especially if they retain custody of their children.

33 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 33 Trends in American Families  The textbook identifies four trends that are taking place in American families. The first is an increase in the number of people who are single. Married couples were the dominant household model through the 1950s, but their numbers have slipped from nearly 80 percent to just above 50 percent now. Currently, 30 percent of all households are made up of people who live alone.

34 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 34 Trends in American Families (cont’d)  The second trend is an increase in the number of people who are cohabitating, with more than 11 million people living with an unmarried partner.

35 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 35 Trends in American Families (cont’d)  The third trend is an increase in the number of single parents. Currently, one-third of all first births are to unmarried partners. The fourth trend is related to the increasing number of people who are living in intentional communities (any of a variety of groups who form communal living arrangements outside marriage).

36 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 36 The Postmodern Family  Families adapting to the challenges of a postmodern society may create family structures that look very different from the “traditional” family and can include ex- spouses, new partners and children, other kin, and even non-kin such as friends and coworkers.

37 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 37 Concept Quiz 1.How do contemporary sociologists define family? a. Relatives or relations, usually those related by common descent b. A social group whose members are bound by legal, biological, or emotional ties, or a combination of all three c. Two or more individuals related by blood, marriage, or adoption living in the same household d. A two-parent household with children

38 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 38 Concept Quiz 2.The fact that people tend to marry someone from a similar social class background demonstrates: a. endogamy. b. polygyny. c. polyandry. d. exogamy.

39 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 39 Concept Quiz 3.The prohibition of inter-racial marriage, cohabitation, or sexual interaction is called: a. anti-miscegenation. b. anti-fulcrumation. c. anti-internization. d. anti-polygamation.

40 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 40 Concept Quiz 4. Which theory sees the family as a cultural universal and tries to identify its purpose for society? a. Structural Functionalism b. Conflict Theory c. Labeling Theory d. Symbolic Interactionism

41 The Real World Copyright © 2008 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 41 Concept Quiz 5.The unpaid labor inside the home that is often expected of women after they get home from working at paid labor outside the home is called: a. gendered work. b. instrumental work. c. a resistance strategy. d. the second shift.


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