Presentation on theme: "10/20/14 Have your HW out Current science Quiz 2.1-2.2 back Review the ws (1 st period we’ll fold too) Real world protein example: sickle cell Protein."— Presentation transcript:
10/20/14 Have your HW out Current science Quiz back Review the ws (1 st period we’ll fold too) Real world protein example: sickle cell Protein Intro Protein pennies Enzyme Lab Prelab HW: individual lab information
Real world example!
Hemoglobin Carries Oxygen
Quaternary Structure: this is 4 “subunits” stuck together
Hemoglobin is a different shape with oxygen bound
Change of Shape is Critical In lungs conditions cause hemoglobin to bind oxygen Near muscles conditions cause hemoglobin to release oxygen
What if an Amino Acid is Changed?
Just 1 Amino Acid Difference Glutamic AcidValine Correct a.a is hydrophyllic Incorrect a.a is hydrophobic!
Hydrophobic pushes in b/c “hates” water
Effects of Sickle Cell
ENZYMES Protein Catalysts
Enzymes Are Catalysts Not used up in the reaction Help chemical reactions occur
In Chemical Equations Sucrose Maltose Sucrose + Amylase Maltose + Amylase Amylase
Enzymes are Proteins Bonds with substrates (reactants) in active site
Enzymes Are Specific Have complementary structures allowing them to bond with only certain substrates
Enzymes Help Break Bonds
All Chemical Reactions Involve Breaking Bonds in Reactants Allows new bonds to form instead
The Penny-Picker Enzyme Function of Penny-Picker: Pick up pennies and flip them over The pennies represent a toxic byproduct of cellular processes that must be converted to a safer form Active site: Specific to ONE substrate. What’s the substrate? Pennies Only holds ONE penny at a time
Data Table On your whiteboard make the following table: After 10sAfter 20sAfter 30sAfter 40s Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5
Procedure - Trial 1: Baseline Spread out pennies on table HEADS side up Without looking (enzymes don’t have eyes!) grab pennies and flip them over, putting them in the corner of your table One person flips pennies for FOUR 10-second intervals without looking; one person times and counts Record data on your whiteboard. DO NOT REPLACE THE PENNIES BETWEEN TIME INTERVALS
Procedure - Trial 2: Denaturation Spread out all pennies on table HEADS side up Repeat procedure for flipping pennies in four 10- second intervals THIS TIME: Hand used to flip pennies gets taped around all four fingers (partial denaturation) Record data on white board Come up with a definition of denaturation.
Procedure - Trial 3: Coenzyme Again spread out pennies on table HEADS side up Repeat procedure for flipping pennies in four 10-second intervals THIS TIME: Enzyme has the help of a teammate, representing a coenzyme Coenzyme picks up pennies and hands them to enzyme for flipping & moving Record data on white board
Co-Enzymes *No Need to take notes or memorize for quiz – this is just to exemplify importance of enzymes
Procedure - Trial 4: Competitive Inhibitors Spread out pennies on table with approximately 50/50 mix of HEADS and TAILS up TAILS pennies represent competitive inhibitors. Molecules that have a similar shape and bind to the active site, but cannot be broken down. Repeat procedure for flipping pennies in four 10-second intervals THIS TIME: If your partner picks up a HEADS penny they move it to the edge of the table & flip it to tails and you count it If your partner picks up a TAILS penny you must stop them and tell them to put it back down Record data on whiteboard
Procedure – Trial 5: Non-Competitive Inhibition Spread the pennies out as before Make your hand into a fist Tape it closed This represents an inhibitor that binds to the enzyme and permanently alters its shape Try to pick up pennies for each of the 4 intervals Fail to pick up pennies and die
Non-Competitive Inhibitors and Venoms *No Need to take notes or memorize for quiz – this is just to exemplify importance of enzymes
Where do genes come from? The connection to venom! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z9HIYjRRaDE