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ENZYMES!. What are Enzymes? PROTEINS! Act as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions They are NOT permanently changed in the process Reusable! Specific!

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Presentation on theme: "ENZYMES!. What are Enzymes? PROTEINS! Act as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions They are NOT permanently changed in the process Reusable! Specific!"— Presentation transcript:

1 ENZYMES!

2 What are Enzymes? PROTEINS! Act as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions They are NOT permanently changed in the process Reusable! Specific! End in –ase –Sucrase –Maltase –Lactase

3 How Do Enzymes Work? Enzymes weaken bonds between compounds –This reduces the amount of energy needed to start a reaction Energy Progress of the reaction Reactants Products Without Enzyme With Enzyme

4 Enzyme-Substrate Complex The substance the enzyme reacts on is the substrate The area where the enzyme binds to the substrate is the Active Site Enzyme Substrate Active Site

5 What Can Affect Enzyme Activity? Environmental Conditions Cofactors and Coenzymes Enzyme Inhibitors

6 Temperature –High temperatures can unfold enzymes –Most reactions require a specific temperature range to occur reliably pH –Most reactions require a neutral pH to occur Environmental Conditions

7 Inorganic substances and vitamins are sometimes needed for enzymes to function properly Ex: Iron must be present in the structure of hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen Cofactors and Coenzymes

8 Enzyme Inhibitors Inhibit the function of a specific enzyme Competitive or noncompetitive Competitive Inhibitors –Resemble the enzymes normal substrate and compete with it for the active site Enzyme Competitive inhibitor Substrate

9 Enzyme Inhibitors Noncompetitive Inhibitors –Do NOT enter the active site! –Bind to a different area of the enzyme This causes the enzyme to change its shape, which alters the active site The enzyme can no longer bind to the substrate Enzyme Altered Active site Noncompetitive Inhibitor Substrate


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