Presentation on theme: "ENGLISH I EXAMS: DEC. 14-16, 2011 Semester Exam Study Guide."— Presentation transcript:
ENGLISH I EXAMS: DEC. 14-16, 2011 Semester Exam Study Guide
Unit #1 Terms Connotation—set of images/emotions associated with a word Denotation—dictionary definition of a word Tone—author’s attitude (emotionally-charged language) toward subject or audience
Unit #1 Terms Formal language—uses correct grammar and sophisticated vocabulary to establish authority Informal language—uses slang terms and simpler words to maintain group identity Rhetorical triangle—speaker, audience, and message
Unit #1 Terms Noun—person, place, thing, or idea Verb—action or state of being (is, am, be, are, was, were, will) Adjective—describes a noun Adverb—tells how much or how often (usually ends in –ly)
Thesis Statement STATE: One sentence summarizing your argument; also known as a claim or main idea
Thesis Statement ELABORATE: Usually found near the beginning or end of the piece; must be strong for the piece as a whole to be successful
Thesis Statement EXEMPLIFY: A thesis statement about Into the Wild could be “Chris McCandless and Alexander Supertramp represent the brave and stupid sides of one confused individual.”
Thesis Statement ILLUSTRATE: It’s like the foundation of a building— everything is built on it, and without a solid foundation, the building as a whole will crumble.
Evidence STATE: Facts used to prove that the thesis statement is true; something no one can dispute
Evidence ELABORATE: Also known as examples or concrete details; their relationship to the thesis statement must be explained.
Evidence EXEMPLIFY: For example, Chris donated all of his savings to charity and then burned all of his cash.
Evidence ILLUSTRATE: It’s like the smoking gun with fingerprints on it that proves you shot the sheriff.
Structure STATE: Pattern that organizes a piece of writing, determining what come first, last, and in the middle
Structure ELABORATE: Could be based on the chronological order in which events occurs or cause-and-effect, or organized according to main idea and supporting points
Structure EXEMPLIFY: In a story, the plot goes exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; however, in an essay, the argument goes thesis statement, supporting point, evidence, etc.
Structure ILLUSTRATE: It’s like rides at an amusement park— some spin in circles, some drop straight down, some swing from side to side, etc.
Epigraph STATE: Quotation at the beginning of a piece of writing, highlighting the theme
Epigraph ELABORATE: Often set apart by quotation marks, italics, or wider margins
Epigraph EXEMPLIFY: An epigraph from the beginning of a chapter in Into the Wild is “For children are innocent and love justice, while most of us are wicked and naturally prefer mercy.” (G.K. Chesterton), which relates to the theme that Chris has a childlike innocence, while his parents behaved badly.
Epigraph ILLUSTRATE: It’s like wearing a distinctive hat—it is the first thing people notice, and it represents your personality.
Argument STATE: Logical explanation of an opinion or claim based on evidence (in writing)
Argument ELABORATE: Contains no emotion (unlike persuasion); NOT the same as having a shouting match with someone in person
Argument EXEMPLIFY: If you wanted your parents to buy you a car, you could present your argument by rationally laying out all the reasons why it would benefit them (instead of begging or screaming).
Argument ILLUSTRATE: It’s like listening to the news on the radio instead of listening to music—it explains things clearly without stirring your emotions.
Preposition STATE: Words that identify the direction or relationship of a noun or pronoun
Preposition ELABORATE: Usually short words; also thought of as “anywhere a mouse can go”
Preposition ILLUSTRATE: It’s like an arrow pointing to another part of the sentence.
Phrase STATE: a group of words containing either a subject OR a predicate (NOT BOTH)
Phrase ELABORATE: A prepositional phrase would start with a preposition, end with a noun, and contain NO predicate
Phrase EXEMPLIFY: over the river; through the woods; to grandmother’s house; with boughs; of holly
Phrase ILLUSTRATE: It’s like if a complete sentence were a body, then a phrase would be an arm or a leg, because an arm can’t live without the rest of the body, but a body (or sentence) CAN survive without an arm (or phrase).
Independent Clause STATE: Can stand alone as a complete sentence
Independent Clause ELABORATE: Contains subject and predicate in a complete thought
Independent Clause EXEMPLIFY: I am starting to get pretty worried about my exams. I have a lot of studying to do tonight!
Independent Clause ILLUSTRATE: It’s like an adult, who doesn’t need anyone’s permission or help to get by.
Dependent Clause STATE: Contains subject and predicate but is NOT a complete thought (usually because of first word)
Dependent Clause ELABORATE: If a dependent clause (or prepositional phrase) comes at the beginning of a sentence, place a COMMA before the independent clause
Dependent Clause EXEMPLIFY: Marker words include although, when, because, if, until, even…
Dependent Clause ILLUSTRATE: It’s like a child—it needs an adult (independent clause) to “live” with and support it.
Question Stems Types of questions you will see on the exam. Read a passage (fiction, nonfiction, or poetry) and create a question about that passage using one of the stems. Create multiple choices (opposite, unrelated, half- right/half-wrong, correct). Choose the right answer.