Presentation on theme: "Lorin Anderson University of South Carolina"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lorin Anderson University of South Carolina The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An OverviewLorin AndersonUniversity of South Carolina
2 A Fundamental TruthWe don’t see the world as it is; we see the world through the lens through which we look at it.
3 Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework A taxonomy of educational objectives “could do much tobring order out of chaos in the field of education. It couldfurnish the conceptual framework around which ourdescriptions of educational programs and experiencescould be oriented. It could furnish a framework for thedevelopment of educational theories and research. It couldfurnish the scheme needed for training our teachers and fororienting them to the varied possibilities of education”(Bloom, 1949)
4 Who were the taxonomists? Post World War IIStudents received course credit by passing the examinations (credit-by-examination)Quite obviously, the exams had to be based on course objectives (validity) and of sufficient length to be reliable.University ExaminersResponsible for designing or helping to design end-of-course examinations
5 They Needed a Set of Categories that Cut-Across Subject Areas “Although the objectives … may be specified in an almost unlimited number of ways, the student behaviors involved in these objectives can be represented by a relatively small number of classes. Therefore, the taxonomy is designed to be a classification of the student behaviors which represent the intended outcomes of the educational process” (p. 18).
7 The Original Bloom’s Taxonomy The Original “Bloom’s Taxonomy EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeThe Original Bloom’s TaxonomyThe Original “Bloom’s TaxonomyThe Original “Bloom’s Taxonomy
8 Without the Lens The student will recall the names of the parts of a flower.
9 This is a knowledge objective. With the LensThe student will recall the names ofthe parts of a flower.This is a knowledge objective.
10 Objectives were used to form categories; then categories were used to classify objectives % of the objectives fell into the Knowledge category
11 The Revision Began in November 1996 Led by David Krathwohl Involved cognitive psychologists, curriculum theorists, teacher educators, and measurement and assessment specialists.Group met twice a year for four years.Draft completed in 2000; text published in 2001.Two books – soft cover for teachers and other “practitioners” and hard cover for academicians.
12 In education, objectives are statements of what we want students to learn as a result of the instruction we provide. Standards are simply mandated objectives.Make the point that objectives provide a purpose for our instruction. They answer the WHY question. For example, why are we teaching this stuff? By mandated, we mean that teachers are expected to teach toward standards whether they believe them to be important or not.
13 The Common Format of Objectives Subject Verb ObjectS V OAll standards are written in the same grammatical format: subject-verb-object or SVO.
14 The SUBJECT is the Learner or the Student. The student (will)The student (should)The students (might)The subject is the learner or the student or students (or learners). There is a verb immediately after the subject but that is not the verb of interest to us. Rather, that verb is in the future tense and indicates the intentional nature of standards. Also, that verb indicates our commitment to student learning (“will” is greater than “should” which is greater than “might”).Quite often, the subject is implicit or understood.
15 The verbs provide clues as to the cognitive process category intended by the person or persons writing the standard. Adopted from the original Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, there are six cognitive process categories.
20 THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling2.UNDERSTANDInterpretingExemplifyingClassifyingSummarizingInferringComparingExplaining3.APPLYExecutingImplementing4.ANALYZEDifferentiatingOrganizingAttributing5.EVALUATECheckingCritiquing6.CREATEGeneratingPlanningProducing
21 Unlike the verbs, the objects of the standards are subject-specific (e Unlike the verbs, the objects of the standards are subject-specific (e.g., math, science, social studies). The objects specify the CONTENT of the standard. For several reasons, CONTENT was replaced by KNOWLEDGE.
22 What are Differences Between Content and Knowledge? Content is subject-matter specific. If you focused on content, then, you would need as many taxonomies as there are subject matters (e.g., one for science, one for history, etc.).Content exists outside the student. A major problem, then, is how to get the content inside the student. When content gets inside the student, it becomes knowledge. This transformation of content to knowledge takes place through the cognitive processes used by the student.
23 Four Types of Knowledge Factual KnowledgeConceptual KnowledgeProcedural KnowledgeMetacognitive Knowledge
24 HOT ARTICHOKE DIP (Serves 10 to 14) 2 14-oz cans artichoke hearts16 oz. mayonnaise1 c. grated Parmesan cheeseGarlic salt (optional)====================================Drain artichoke hearts.Mash artichokes with fork.Mix with mayonnaise, cheese, and garlic salt.Bake at 350 degrees for 15 minutes or until cheese is melted.Serve with crackers or party rye.
25 THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION DIMENSION KNOWLEDGE 1.REMEMBERRecognizingRecalling2.UNDERSTANDInterpretingExemplifyingClassifyingSummarizingInferringComparingExplaining3.APPLYExecutingImplementing4.ANALYZEDifferentiatingOrganizingAttributing5.EVALUATECheckingCritiquing6.CREATEGeneratingPlanningProducingFACTUAL KNOWLEDGECONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGEPROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGEMETACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE
26 B. Conceptual Knowledge THE TAXONOMY TABLE1.REMEMBERRecognizingRecalling2.UNDERSTANDInterpretingExemplifyingClassifyingSummarizingInferringComparingExplaining3.APPLYExecutingImplementing4.ANALYZEDifferentiatingOrganizingAttributing5.EVALUATECheckingCritiquing6.CREATEGeneratingPlanningProducingA. Factual KnowledgeA1A2A3A4A5A6B. Conceptual KnowledgeB1B2B3B4B5B6We can use shorthand notation to refer to the cells. For example, A1 is Remember Factual Knowledge and C3 is Apply Procedural Knowledge.C. ProceduralKnowledgeC1C2C3C4C5C6D. MetacognitiveKnowledgeD1D2D3D4D5D6
28 Explain the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century, including NATO, the UN, and OPEC
29 Verb = ExplainObject = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Centuryincluding NATO, the UN, and OPEC[Extraneous information]
30 Verb = Explain = Understand Object = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century = Conceptual Knowledge
31 Summarize the provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities
32 Verb = SummarizeObject = Provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the ConstitutionIncluding how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities [Extraneous information]
33 Verb = Summarize = Understand Object = Provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution = Factual Knowledge
34 THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION DIMENSION KNOWLEDGE 1.REMEMBERRecognizingRecalling2.UNDERSTANDInterpretingExemplifyingClassifyingSummarizingInferringComparingExplaining3.APPLYExecutingImplementing4.ANALYZEDifferentiatingOrganizingAttributing5.EVALUATECheckingCritiquing6.CREATEGeneratingPlanningProducingFACTUAL KNOWLEDGEStandard 2CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGEStandard 1PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGEMETACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE
35 The SVO format of standards in combination with the two-dimensional structure of the Taxonomy Table allows us to classify standards so we better understand their intent and meaning in terms of student learning.
36 Additional Benefits Increase curriculum alignment Improve validity of assessmentsImprove quality of instruction
37 Instructional Activities/ Materials Curriculum AlignmentAssessmentsObjectivesCurriculum AlignmentCurriculum has three partsInstructional Activities/ Materials
38 Why is Alignment Important? Increases validity of assessmentIncreases students’ opportunity to learnProvides more accurate estimates of teaching effectivenessPermits better instructional decisions to be made
39 Traditional Alignment What content is included in the objective?What content is included on the assessment(s)?Is the content included in the objective and/or on the assessment included in the instructional materials?If the content is the same, there is a high level of alignment.
40 ALIGNMENT USING THE TAXONOMY TABLE Objectives Assessments Instructional ActivitiesRememberUnderstandApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreateFactualConceptualProceduralMeta-Cognitive
41 (1) Question (2) Incomplete Statement (3) Directive THE ANATOMY OF AN ASSESSMENT TASKINTRODUCTORY MATERIAL(1) Written (2) Pictorial (3) RealiaSTEM(1) Question (2) Incomplete Statement (3) DirectiveRESPONSE(1) Short-Answer (2) Extended Response* Supply (Fill in the blank) * Written* Select (Multiple-choice, * PerformanceMatching, True-False)
42 Remember Factual Knowledge No Introductory MaterialStem as Question or Incomplete StatementSupply (Recall) or Select (Recognize) Format
43 Apply Procedural Knowledge Introductory Material is PresentStem as DirectiveExtended Response Format
44 Teaching Students to "Remember Factual Knowledge" Focus students’ attention on important facts and terms, using, among other things, study guides, colors, and verbal markers.2. Structure the information to be remembered (e.g., outlines, diagrams, pictures).Use repetition, incorporating songs and rhythmic activities (e.g., clapping, chanting, cheering).Use mnemonic devices & acronyms; teach memory strategies (e.g., rehearsal, elaboration, making connections with familiar places and things).5. Use distributed practice.
45 Teaching Students to "Understand Conceptual Knowledge“ 1. Emphasize defining features or key characteristics; ask "what makes X, X?"2. Give examples, non-examples, and “near” examples.3. Teach concepts in relation to one another; show connections and relationships using visual representations and graphic organizers.4. Use metaphors and similes.5. Use “hands-on” activities and manipulatives; build models.
46 Why the Revised Taxonomy? Historical link (1949 to the present)Two dimensions match the structure of all objectives: subject-verb-object.Complete “crossing” of rows with columns makes knowledge and cognitive processes equally importantThe use of verbs is critical since the verbs represent the cognitive processes that students use on or with the content so that learning occurs