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The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview Lorin Anderson University of South Carolina.

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Presentation on theme: "The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview Lorin Anderson University of South Carolina."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview Lorin Anderson University of South Carolina

2 A Fundamental Truth We don’t see the world as it is; we see the world through the lens through which we look at it.

3 Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework A taxonomy of educational objectives “could do much to bring order out of chaos in the field of education. It could furnish the conceptual framework around which our descriptions of educational programs and experiences could be oriented. It could furnish a framework for the development of educational theories and research. It could furnish the scheme needed for training our teachers and for orienting them to the varied possibilities of education” (Bloom, 1949)

4 Who were the taxonomists? Post World War II Post World War II Students received course credit by passing the examinations (credit-by-examination) Students received course credit by passing the examinations (credit-by-examination) Quite obviously, the exams had to be based on course objectives (validity) and of sufficient length to be reliable. Quite obviously, the exams had to be based on course objectives (validity) and of sufficient length to be reliable. University Examiners University Examiners Responsible for designing or helping to design end-of-course examinations Responsible for designing or helping to design end-of-course examinations

5 They Needed a Set of Categories that Cut-Across Subject Areas “Although the objectives … may be specified in an almost unlimited number of ways, the student behaviors involved in these objectives can be represented by a relatively small number of classes. Therefore, the taxonomy is designed to be a classification of the student behaviors which represent the intended outcomes of the educational process” (p. 18).

6 Looking Through a New Lens

7 Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge The Original “Bloom’s Taxonomy The Original Bloom’s Taxonomy

8 Without the Lens The student will recall the names of the parts of a flower.

9 With the Lens The student will recall the names of the parts of a flower. This is a knowledge objective.

10 Objectives were used to form categories; then categories were used to classify objectives. 80 % of the objectives fell into the Knowledge category

11 The Revision Began in November 1996 Began in November 1996 Led by David Krathwohl Led by David Krathwohl Involved cognitive psychologists, curriculum theorists, teacher educators, and measurement and assessment specialists. Involved cognitive psychologists, curriculum theorists, teacher educators, and measurement and assessment specialists. Group met twice a year for four years. Group met twice a year for four years. Draft completed in 2000; text published in Draft completed in 2000; text published in Two books – soft cover for teachers and other “practitioners” and hard cover for academicians. Two books – soft cover for teachers and other “practitioners” and hard cover for academicians.

12 In education, objectives are statements of what we want students to learn as a result of the instruction we provide. Standards are simply mandated objectives.

13 The Common Format of Objectives Subject Verb Object S V O

14 The SUBJECT is the Learner or the Student. The student (will) The student (should) The students (might) Quite often, the subject is implicit or understood.

15 The verbs provide clues as to the cognitive process category intended by the person or persons writing the standard. Adopted from the original Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, there are six cognitive process categories.

16 Bloom Revised Bloom Remember Apply Understand Analyze Evaluate Create Evaluation Analysis Synthesis Application Comprehension Knowledge

17 Each of the six cognitive process categories was divided into specific cognitive processes. Nineteen (19) specific cognitive processes were identified.

18 Cognitive Processes Remember Remember Understand Understand Recognizing Recognizing Recalling Recalling Interpreting Interpreting Exemplifying Exemplifying Classifying Classifying Summarizing Summarizing Inferring Inferring Comparing Comparing Explaining Explaining

19 Cognitive Processes (continued) Apply Apply Analyze Analyze Evaluate Evaluate Create Create Executing Executing Implementing Implementing Differentiating Differentiating Organizing Organizing Attributing Attributing Checking Checking Critiquing Critiquing Generating Generating Planning Planning Producing Producing

20 THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing

21 Unlike the verbs, the objects of the standards are subject-specific (e.g., math, science, social studies). The objects specify the CONTENT of the standard. For several reasons, CONTENT was replaced by KNOWLEDGE.

22 What are Differences Between Content and Knowledge? Content is subject-matter specific. If you focused on content, then, you would need as many taxonomies as there are subject matters (e.g., one for science, one for history, etc.). Content is subject-matter specific. If you focused on content, then, you would need as many taxonomies as there are subject matters (e.g., one for science, one for history, etc.). Content exists outside the student. A major problem, then, is how to get the content inside the student. When content gets inside the student, it becomes knowledge. This transformation of content to knowledge takes place through the cognitive processes used by the student. Content exists outside the student. A major problem, then, is how to get the content inside the student. When content gets inside the student, it becomes knowledge. This transformation of content to knowledge takes place through the cognitive processes used by the student.

23 Four Types of Knowledge Factual Knowledge Factual Knowledge Conceptual Knowledge Conceptual Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Metacognitive Knowledge Metacognitive Knowledge

24 HOT ARTICHOKE DIP (Serves 10 to 14) 2 14-oz cans artichoke hearts 16 oz. mayonnaise 1 c. grated Parmesan cheese Garlic salt (optional) ==================================== 1.Drain artichoke hearts. 2.Mash artichokes with fork. 3.Mix with mayonnaise, cheese, and garlic salt. 4.Bake at 350 degrees for 15 minutes or until cheese is melted. 5.Serve with crackers or party rye.

25 THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGEDIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE

26 THE TAXONOMY TABLE D6 D6 D5 D5 D4 D4 D3 D3 D2 D2 D1 D1 D. Metacognitive Knowledge C6 C6 C5 C5 C4 C4 C3 C3 C2 C2 C1 C1 C. Procedural Knowledge B6 B6 B5 B5 B4 B4 B3 B3 B2 B2 B1 B1 B. Conceptual Knowledge A6 A6 A5 A5 A4 A4 A3 A3 A2 A2 A1 A1 A. Factual Knowledge 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing

27 How it Works

28 Explain the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20 th Century, including NATO, the UN, and OPEC

29 Verb = Explain Verb = Explain the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century Object = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century including NATO, the UN, and OPEC [Extraneous information] [Extraneous information]

30 Verb = Explain = Understand Verb = Explain = Understand the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century = Conceptual Knowledge Object = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century = Conceptual Knowledge

31 Summarize the provisions of the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments to the Constitution, including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities

32 Verb = Summarize Verb = Summarize Object = Provisions of the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments to the Constitution Including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities [Extraneous information]

33 Verb = Summarize = Understand Verb = Summarize = Understand Object = Provisions of the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments to the Constitution = Factual Knowledge

34 THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION Standard 1 FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGEDIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE Standard 2

35 The SVO format of standards in combination with the two- dimensional structure of the Taxonomy Table allows us to classify standards so we better understand their intent and meaning in terms of student learning.

36 Additional Benefits Increase curriculum alignment Increase curriculum alignment Improve validity of assessments Improve validity of assessments Improve quality of instruction Improve quality of instruction

37 Curriculum Alignment Assessments Objectives Instructional Activities/ Materials Curriculum Alignment

38 Why is Alignment Important? Increases validity of assessment Increases validity of assessment Increases students’ opportunity to learn Increases students’ opportunity to learn Provides more accurate estimates of teaching effectiveness Provides more accurate estimates of teaching effectiveness Permits better instructional decisions to be made Permits better instructional decisions to be made

39 Traditional Alignment What content is included in the objective? What content is included in the objective? What content is included on the assessment(s)? What content is included on the assessment(s)? Is the content included in the objective and/or on the assessment included in the instructional materials? Is the content included in the objective and/or on the assessment included in the instructional materials? If the content is the same, there is a high level of alignment. If the content is the same, there is a high level of alignment.

40 ALIGNMENT USING THE TAXONOMY TABLE ObjectivesAssessments Instructional Activities RememberUnderstandApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreate Factual Conceptual Procedural Meta-Cognitive

41 INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL (1) Written (2) Pictorial (3) Realia STEM (1) Question (2) Incomplete Statement (3) Directive RESPONSE (1) Short-Answer (2) Extended Response * Supply (Fill in the blank) * Written * Select (Multiple-choice, * Performance Matching, True-False) THE ANATOMY OF AN ASSESSMENT TASK

42 Remember Factual Knowledge No Introductory Material No Introductory Material Stem as Question or Incomplete Statement Stem as Question or Incomplete Statement Supply (Recall) or Select (Recognize) Format Supply (Recall) or Select (Recognize) Format

43 Apply Procedural Knowledge Introductory Material is Present Introductory Material is Present Stem as Directive Stem as Directive Extended Response Format Extended Response Format

44 1.Focus students’ attention on important facts and terms, using, among other things, study guides, colors, and verbal markers. 2.Structure the information to be remembered (e.g., outlines, diagrams, pictures). 3.Use repetition, incorporating songs and rhythmic activities (e.g., clapping, chanting, cheering). 4.Use mnemonic devices & acronyms; teach memory strategies (e.g., rehearsal, elaboration, making connections with familiar places and things). 5. Use distributed practice. Teaching Students to "Remember Factual Knowledge"

45 Teaching Students to "Understand Conceptual Knowledge“ 1.Emphasize defining features or key characteristics; ask "what makes X, X?" 2.Give examples, non-examples, and “near” examples. 3.Teach concepts in relation to one another; show connections and relationships using visual representations and graphic organizers. 4.Use metaphors and similes. 5.Use “hands-on” activities and manipulatives; build models.

46 Why the Revised Taxonomy? Historical link (1949 to the present) Historical link (1949 to the present) Two dimensions match the structure of all objectives: subject-verb-object. Two dimensions match the structure of all objectives: subject-verb-object. Complete “crossing” of rows with columns makes knowledge and cognitive processes equally important Complete “crossing” of rows with columns makes knowledge and cognitive processes equally important The use of verbs is critical since the verbs represent the cognitive processes that students use on or with the content so that learning occurs The use of verbs is critical since the verbs represent the cognitive processes that students use on or with the content so that learning occurs


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