Presentation on theme: "The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview"— Presentation transcript:
1The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview Audio: In 2001, a revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives was published. The primary purposes of the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (RBT) were to provide a common framework for thinking about standards and a common vocabulary for talking about standards. With a common framework and a common language, a common understanding of standards among educators is more likely. And, with a common understanding of standards, groups of teachers -- across grade levels and subject matters -- can work together to improve the quality of instruction and the validity and use of assessments. These purposes and possibilities are consistent with those formulated by the authors and editors of the original Taxonomy.Audio: (Activity) Think of a subject area that you teach to a group of students. Examples would be fifth grade science.Write one objective for the subject area and students that you selected. Your objective should be what you believe to be the most important thing that the students should learn. If there is one thing in that subject area you want students to learn what would that be? Only have one choice. Stop the video at this time and take about 3-4 minutes for everyone to do this.
2Organizing Questions For Curriculum Development 1.What is important for students to learn in the limited school and classroom time available?2. How does one plan and deliver instruction that will result in high levels of learning for large numbers of students?3. How does one select or design assessment instruments and procedures that provide accurate information about how well students are learning?4. How does one ensure that objectives, instruction, and assessment are consistent with one another?**Check CD for Anderson’s explanation.Audio: Although we may gain a better understanding of an objective using the Taxonomy Table, how does this increased understanding help us? Teachers traditionally have struggled with issues and concerns pertaining to education, teaching and learning. Here are four of the most important organizing questions:Action: Questions appear one at a time –timed with audio readingAudio: 1. What is important for students to earn in the limited school and classroom time available? This is the learning question.2. How does one plan and deliver instruction that will result in high levels of learning for large numbers of students. The instruction question3. How does one select or design assessment instruments and procedures that provide accurate information about how well students are learning? The Assessment question.4. How does one ensure that objectives, instruction, and assessment are consistent with one another? The alignment question.These four organizing questions provide a basis for showing how the Taxonomy framework can be used.Audio-A taxonomy of educational objectives “could do much tobring order out of chaos in the field of education. It couldfurnish the conceptual framework around which ourdescriptions of educational programs and experiencescould be oriented. It could furnish a framework for thedevelopment of educational theories and research. It couldfurnish the scheme needed for training our teachers and fororienting them to the varied possibilities of education”(Bloom, 1949)
3Learning occurs best when there is: A purposeful process that aligns what is:WrittenTaughtTestedAttention to both:ContentCognitive TypeLearning outcomes occur best when there is:
4Importance of Alignment Alignment is an even stronger predictor of student achievement on standardized tests than are socioeconomic status, gender, race, and teacher effect.(Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989)Audio: How a teacher understands a particular standard may not be the same as the understanding of those who wrote it. In addition, teachers themselves often disagree as to the meaning of particular standards. Furthermore,, because of thes differences in understanding, it is quite possible that the instructional strategies and assessment methods used by teachers are inconsistent with the intended meaning of the standard as stated and/or the way that standard is assessed at the state or federal level. In the language of the curriculum specialist or test developer, this inconsistency is known as misalignment.
6Think about all who are responsible for student achievement
7Student Achievement is a Shared Responsibility The Department of Public Instruction Deploys STANDARDSThe District DesignsLOCAL CURRICULUMThe Teachers Design INSTRUCTIONAudio: Student achievement is a shared responsibility between the Department of Public Instruction, local districts, and teachers.. Let’s take a minute to think about all who are responsible for student achievement. The knowledge and skills students need are found in the content standards. Standards are objectives set by organizations and agencies. The Department of Public Instruction deploys the standards.Using these content standards districts design local curricula by providing teachers a basis for planning lessons and evaluating students based on the standards. The curricular design includes but is not limited to course overviews, scope and sequences, curriculum guides, sets of common objectives and local unpacking.Teachers use the standards –driven curriculum to design instruction aligned with the content standards.
8Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework A taxonomy of educational objectives “could do much to bring order out of chaos in the field of education. It could furnish the conceptual framework around which our descriptions of educational programs and experiences could be oriented. It could furnish a framework for the development of educational theories and research. It could furnish the scheme needed for training our teachers and for orienting them to the varied possibilities of education” (Bloom, 1949)**P
9Bloom’s is familiar to MOST educators Show old modelVoiceover, “It has its limitations”
10It has limitationsThe single dimension of the original Bloom’s Taxonomy limits its utility in well aligned instructional design.
11INSTRUCTIONTeachers provide learning experiences, aligned with local curriculum expectations, to prepare students to meet the standards set by the stateThese learning experiences are framed by objectives
12Objectives are statements of what a teacher wants students to learn as a result of the instruction provided. Standards are simply mandated objectives.Make the point that objectives provide a purpose for our instruction. They answer the WHY question. For example, why are we teaching this stuff? By mandated, we mean that teachers are expected to teach toward standards whether they believe them to be important or not.
13The Common Format of Objectives Subject Verb ObjectS V OAll standards are written in the same grammatical format: subject-verb-object or SVO.Audio: All objectives have a common format. A subject, verb, object format. Subject is the learner or the student. The subject is commonly written as:The student willThe student will be able toThe student shouldThe Should be able to
14Bloom’s is familiar to MOST educators EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeSide by side comparison to old and new—nouns to verbsAudio: The original Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational objectives was intended to classify the verbs. Notice these are in noun forms. They really should be know, comprehend, apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate because that is where they fit with in the overall scheme of things when it comes to classifying the verbs. As we revise the taxonomy it was decided to shift forms from the noun to the verb form. This pyramid indicates another factor inhererant in original taxonomy. The authors of that volume believed that knowledge was a prerequisite to comprehension. Comprehension was a prerequisite for application and all the way up. What happened in a lot of cases is that people filled their curriculum with knowledge and moved on to comprehension. When this is done, what happens is teachers run out of time. In other words , if you have a lot of knowledge and little amount of time rarely get up to analysis, synthesis, and evaluation before the time allocated to a particular subject before time runs out.
15Bloom Revised Bloom Create Evaluation Evaluate Synthesis Analyze AnalysisApplicationApplyAction: have list with arrow on screen aloneAudio: In revising the original Taxonomy, the authors wrote the categories as verbs and made a few changes as they did so. Here you see the original. The arrow indicates the pyramid on the previous slide. It is assumed we are building from knowledge up through evaluation.Action: Bring upAudio: The revised Blooms have to start moving these over and decide what to start calling these things. Could’ve called knowledge know but didn’t called it what it really is “remember” because we want students to start remembering things. That’s what the original taxonomy group meant by knowledge – to remember things exactly the way they were presented to the student. Whether the presentation was by a teacher or student. Comprehension the authors could have gone with comprehend but didn’t went to understand because understand is one of those things that is an important objective in education. We want students to be able to make sense of things. When students say they don’t get it, they don’t me mean I don’t remember it, they mean I don’t understand it. When they say, I am really struggling with something. They don’t say I am struggling to remember but say I am struggling to understand. When student jumps up in class and say “That makes no sense.” That doesn’t mean they don’t get it but they don’t understand it. So understand replaces comprehension. The next 2 are straightforward—application becomes apply and analysis becomes analyze. And then struck with synthesis. Synthesis obviously could be synthesize but was decided there was not enough of research on synthesis. Came up with an important verb that is central to a lot of high level thinking but in order to do that had to take evaluation and move it down and replace synthesis with create. We want students to create things. Create is kind of a cousin of synthesis but it adds more to synthesis than just putting things together. So you simply, in order to move from the old Blooms to revised Blooms you just have to learn a new mantra. Instead of knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation you need to remember, remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create. You will also see on the right hand side of the slide there is no arrow going up. Because unlike the original Blooms where everything was prerequisite to everything else. In the revised Blooms we see all of these cognitive processes as tools in a tool box. There is no necessary order in which students use these tools. That sometimes you apply before you understand. As a matter of fact, there is a lot of evidence in research that you think you understand and then you try to apply it and you realize you do not understand. But the more you try to apply it you start to develop understand. Well that would not work within the old Bloom because comprehension precedes application. Sometimes you evaluate in order to understand. Sometimes you create, then you apply, then you evaluate what you have created and applied. The revised Bloom is a lot more flexible than the original Bloom. Those are the two major shifts you need to make. One is from the noun to the verb forms. The other is away from the rigid prerequisite triangle to the fact that the verbs become tools in a tool box. And you don’t have to remember everything before you analyze. You can move these things around as you see fit.Audio: In the revised Taxonomy, the categories do differ in complexity, with Create the most cognitively complex category. However, the entire set of categories are seen as cognitive tools to be used by students as needed. For example they ned to analyze I order to understand.UnderstandComprehensionKnowledgeRemember
16ActivityExamine the science objective below to determine if it represents the old or revised Bloom. Explain your answer. Illustrate the motion of an object using a graph to show a change in position over a period of time.Audio: This is an example of the Revised Bloom because a student would need to use more cognitively complexed activities in order demonstrate the ability to illustrate.
17The SUBJECT is the Learner or the Student. The student (will)The student (should)The students (might)The subject is the learner or the student or students (or learners). There is a verb immediately after the subject but that is not the verb of interest to us. Rather, that verb is in the future tense and indicates the intentional nature of standards. Also, that verb indicates our commitment to student learning (“will” is greater than “should” which is greater than “might”). This will be the introdution toQuite often, the subject is implicit or understood.
18THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION DIMENSION KNOWLEDGE 1.REMEMBERRecognizingRecalling2.UNDERSTANDInterpretingExemplifyingClassifyingSummarizingInferringComparingExplaining3.APPLYExecutingImplementing4.ANALYZEDifferentiatingOrganizingAttributing5.EVALUATECheckingCritiquing6.CREATEGeneratingPlanningProducingFACTUAL KNOWLEDGECONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGEAction: populate chart with the cognitive processes as reading first three sentences. Populate chart with knowledge dimension when begin reading the 4th sentence.Audio: The authors made a third and final change. The original Taxonomy classified only the verbs. Therefore, it was a one-dimensional classification system. In order to classify the objects of the statements of objectives, a second dimension was needed. Therefore, the revised Taxonomy is a two-dimensional classification system, one dimension for the verbs and the second for the objects.Audio: Now let’PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGEMETACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE
19The Cognitive Process Dimension The Cognitive Process Dimension contains six categoriesEach category contains two or more specific cognitive processes.When all six categories are considered, there is a total of 19 cognitive processesAudio: The original taxonomy contain 6 categories. Each category contains two or more specific cognitive processes. If you add up all the cognitive processes associated with the six categories you will end up with 19 cognitive processes. Trying to limit the number of words that people use. If you look at a lot of objectives and standards written at a state level you will see somewhere in the neighborhood of different verbs. The perspective of the authors of Revised Bloom is that the more verbs and words you use, the less clear the communication. That if we can find a finite number of verbs to do what we want to do the clearer communication. Now let’s look at the categories and cognitive processes more closely.
20Cognitive Processes Remember Understand Recognizing Recalling InterpretingExemplifyingClassifyingSummarizingInferringComparingExplainingAction: Add visual--Bring Remember and its gerunds on slide and sayAudio: The first one the lowest in terms of complexity is remember. Remember means retrieve relevant knowledge from long term memory. In other words it’s up there because of teaching , something you read, it got there somehow. When we remember something it is pulling something from our memory. There are two cognitive processes associated with remember. Two cognitive processes within the remember category are needed because recognizing and recalling are two different things. Let’s suppose you are at a party sitting and talking to someone. Out of the corner of your eye you notice someone coming toward you. You recognize the person but can’t recall the name of the person. If recognize and recall were the same thing this situation would never happen. Recognizing typically comes out of visual. And we are much better visual memorizers than verbal memorizers. Each of these cognitive processes have the same function that is to say we need more than one because they are different things. They are different ways of processing information.Now let’s move on to understand.—Action: Bring in Understand and its processesAudio: Understand means to construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written and graphic communication. The goal of understand is making sense of things. It is taking the word and not only knowing the word but also knowing what the word means. We are talking about understand as meaning, as making sense of things, going beneath to what the words or phrases are to what they mean. To determine the cognitive process for understand asked others, How do you know a student understands something? How do you know that a student makes sense of something? How do you know that a student construct meaning? Each one of these cognitive processes come from answers to these questions. Interpreting in other words if I tell you something and you can say in your own words, I have a better sense that you understand it. If all you do is parrot it back the way I said it, you may have remembered it but I do not have confidence that you understand. If you are given instructions to do something and you do it exactly as the way I told you to do it. Where the interpretation is from words to action. Then I know you understood what I told you to do and you know how to interpret. Exemplifying means come up with an example or recognize an example. If I ask you for an example that is different from an example previously given. When you give an example given previously then you are remembering not understanding. Classifying is almost the opposite of exemplifying. As to say here are some examples and must determine which belongs to a particular category. Summarizing is taking a lot of information and cutting to the heart of things. An example is when students are asked to take a large amount of information and capture the essence with less words. Inferring is a fancy word for predicting and it means going beyond the information given. If understand the pattern or rule then would be able to make a prediction based on the pattern or rule. Comparing answers how is something the same and different among things. Notice by comparing I learn about all things being compared. Comparing includes contrast. Comparing means looking for similarities and differences. Do not need to say compare and contrast because contrast is a subset of compare. The final cognitive process for understand is explaining. Explaining is telling why something exists. A lot of explaining objectives are in science and social studies because explain is a cause and effect. Explain deals with consequences. Each one of these was developed from the question what evidence would you except that a student understands what you are teaching.
21Cognitive Processes (continued) ApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreateExecutingImplementingDifferentiatingOrganizingAttributingCheckingCritiquingGeneratingPlanningProducingAction: Bring up applyAudio: The next verb is apply. Apply means to carry out or use a procedure in a give situation. You apply things because you want to use the knowledge. Using the knowledge is different from knowing the knowledge, is different from understanding the knowledge. Apply is putting what you’ve learned into practice. There are two verbs here. One is executing, which means doing without thought. When you learn to do something well enough then do not have to think about it. If you learn to keyboard really well, your fingers are moving and you are not thinking where they are going because it has become automatic. If you are able to execute that means you can compose a manuscript on the word processer do not have worry about where your fingers are going. That becomes automatic. People who do not have this ability can only peck. Execute is doing it automatically and implement is having to think as you go. Implement is a little more sophisticated than execute.Audio: The next verb is analyze. Analyze means to break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure. The key thing here is without an overall structure or purpose you never analyze. You analyze stories. The story becomes the whole. You can analyze a word as a whole. A structural analysis of a word by breaking it down into the root, suffix, and prefixes. That is breaking the whole into its parts. Before they apply should be analyzing. Analyze has three cognitive processes? Differentiating, organizing, and attributing. Differentiating is separating out within the overall structure. What do I pay attention to and what don’t I pay attention to? What is relevant and what is not relevant? What is important and what is not important? If I don’t know what is important, I don’t know what to focus on. If I don’t know what to focus on the right thing I’m likely to make the wrong decision. I’m likely to get the wrong answer.Organizing is taking all the pieces and putting in a way that makes sense. More than just alphabetical order. It could be organize chronologically. It could be organized in terms of causes and effect. Some feel the reason that graphic organizers have become popular recently is it is an attempt to give students vehicles in which they can begin organizing things. Some teachers like the graphic organizer because they tell students where items go. That defeats the purpose. If you really want to teach students how to organize, you must teach them how to organize for themselves. You can’t give them an organization and tell them copy your organization because that takes us back to remember. Attributing is really reading between the lines. When you ask the student why did that author write that essay? Was it to entertain? Was it to inform? It is not just what did he say but why did he say it? It is kind of an explain update. What was the motive of this character? It is not what did the character do but why did the character do what he did?Then you have evaluate, which means to make judgments based on criteria and standards. Without judgment of something, there is no evaluate. These judgments are value-oriented. It is judgment about worth, effectiveness, judgment about cost, and judgment about does it fit into a category or not. There are two different kinds of evaluate: checking and critiquing. You check as you go along and you critique after you finish. In other words, you check the process and critique the product. If checking do not wait to the end but check throughout process. Checking provides opportunities for you to be a little more efficient because if you recognize problems and mistakes earlier and can make the corrections earlier instead of going through the entire thing and starting all over. The writing process has both checking and critiquing. As you are writing you can check. But the critiquing is using criteria . You might use different traits about voice, grammar, mechanics. You may edit, revise.Create is putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure. There has to be some purpose to create. There is a difference from being creative and being original. To do something no one else has ever done is original. Something can be original and have no purpose. Create requires a purpose. Within create there are 3 cognitive processes: generating, planning, and producing. Generating is coming up with ideas. Planning is how am I going to get those ideas into something completed or finish. Producing is now that I have a plan I carry out the plan ad I finish what I set out to finish. In science many people talk about generating as hypothesizing. In other words you generate a hypothesis. The planning is designing a study to test the hypothesis. And the producing is actually carrying out the study to see if whether or not the hypothesis was supported by the data. So create is across the board. It’s scientific create and artistic. And that’s the thing about the Revised Bloom taxonomy, it cuts across grade levels. It cuts across all subject matter. One of the hopes it can start to encourage communication among groups who haven’t talked before very often--like elementary teachers and middle school teachers--like english teachers and art teachers.
22The object of objectives contains the content to be learned. Audio: Now that is as far as the original taxonomy went.. When we looked at the revised now we realized why they stopped. We’ve discussed the subject and the verb parts of the objective. The object of objectives contains the content to be learned. When you examine content, you generally focus on the differences among subject areas. Mathematics, biology, physics, history, geography, art, and music all have different content. It is the content that defines there differences.To classify the content included as the object of the objective, we need to establish categories that transcend subject area differences. How do you recognize these differences that math is math and history is history. Come up with a classification scheme that finds similarities rather than focus on the differences.
23In order to form categories we need to shift from CONTENT to KNOWLEDGE. Audio: While content is subject-specific, certain types of knowledge cur across subjects. For example, there are facts in every subject matter. Factual knowledge is something that cuts across all subject matter. There are facts in music, facts in math, facts in art, facts in history. A math fact is 7 x 3 is 21. A history fact is the constitution was approved in They are different but are both facts. So trying to define the types of knowledge. Like factual knowledge.
24What are Differences Between Content and Knowledge? Content exists outside the student. A major problem, then, is how to get the content inside the student.Content is subject-matter specific.Audio: The major difference between content and knowledge is that content exists outside the student. It’s in books, it’s in material, it’s on line. Matter of fact when you open a book one of first things you see is the table of contents. It tells you the content of the book. A major problem, is how to get the content inside the student. In many respects that is the fundamental job of the teacher. How do you get what is out there inside. If you get it in just the way it was presented then that is remember. Remember the content exactly the way it was presented. When content gets inside the student, it becomes knowledge. We don’t carry around content, we carry around knowledge. We remember facts about biology, ideas about biology, skills about biology, how use a microscope, all those are knowledge that we take away from our various courses. This transformation of content to knowledge takes place through the cognitive processes used by the student. In other words, it’s not the teacher that makes the transformation. Teachers can not turn content to knowledge, students do it. And they do it by whether they remember it, whether they understand it, whether they apply it, whether they analyze it, whether they evaluate it, whether they create it. That’s the transformation that moves content to knowledge.If you focused on content, then, you would need as many taxonomies as there are subject matters (e.g., one for science, one for history, etc.).
25Four Types of Knowledge Factual KnowledgeConceptual KnowledgeProcedural KnowledgeMetacognitive KnowledgeAction: Bring in one at a timeAudio: The Revised Bloom came up with four categories of knowledge. Factual, Conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive. The first three most people understand a little more easily. The last one is a little bit more difficult.
26Factual Knowledge Terminology Specific details Audio: Factual knowledge is the basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it. What are the basics? Because if do not have the basic knowledge students will not know where to begin. Factual knowledge is knowledge of terminology and knowledge of specific details and elements.
27Conceptual Knowledge Classifications and categories Principles and generalizationsTheories, models, and structuresAudio: Conceptual knowledge on the other hand is the interrelationships among the basic elements –the categories, the patterns, the connections within a larger structure that enable them to function together. Within conceptual knowledge there is knowledge of classifications and categories, knowledge of principles and generalizations, and knowledge of theories, models, and structures. Each one is a little bigger than the one before.
28Procedural Knowledge Subject-specific skills and algorithms Subject-specific techniques and methodsCriteria for determining when to use appropriate proceduresAudio: Then we have procedural knowledge. Procedural knowledge is the knowledge of how to do something such as techniques, methods, and skills. How do you ride a bike? How do you use a microscope. Within this category you have knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms, knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods, and knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures. The general category is procedural knowledge. Different subject matters call them different things. Art calls them techniques. Science calls them methods. And many people in industrial education may call them skills.
29Metacognitive Knowledge Strategic knowledgeKnowledge about cognitive tasksSelf-knowledgeAudio: Which leads us to metacognitive knowledge. Metacognitive knowlege is knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge or one’s own cognition. In other words, metacognitive is what you know about yourself in relationship to what you are learning. What do you like? What don’ t you like? What do you do well? What don’t you do well? What strategies work for you? What strategies don’t work for you? It is a filter. Metacognitive knowledge filters all this to make it unique to you. To help you be a better or worst learner. Not all of metacongitive knowledge is good. Learning anxiety comes out of metacognitive knowledge. Because overtime you to the conclusion that you don’t get it and will never be good at it. This metacognitive knowledge can prevent you from ever understanding that content. Metacognitive knowledge can be both helpful and hurtful. There is strategic knowledge—knowledge about strategies, knowledge abut cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge—How do I write an essay? How do I do a multiple choice test? How do I complete an assignment? and self-knowledge–What am I interested in? What am I good at? A lot of the so call affective things comes out of that..
30HOT ARTICHOKE DIP (Serves 10 to 14) 2 14-oz cans artichoke hearts16 oz. mayonnaise1 c. grated Parmesan cheeseGarlic salt (optional)====================================Drain artichoke hearts.Mash artichokes with fork.Mix with mayonnaise, cheese, and garlic salt.Bake at 350 degrees for 15 minutes or until cheese is melted.Serve with crackers or party rye.Audio: Now to put this all together from a knowledge dimension, let’s look at something simple. A recipe. Everyone is familiar with recipes. Recipes have 2 parts. The top part is called ingredients. In the language of the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy the top part would be called the factual knowledge. These are the facts of the case. There is no organization it is just a list of things. The bottom part is organized sequentially and begins with verbs. Verbs tell you to do something. In the language of the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy it would be called procedural knowledge. If you had the factual knowledge without the procedural knowledge you can’t do the recipe. If you have the procedural knowledge without the factual knowledge, you will not have enough details. So they work together, factual and procedural knowledge. If that is all you have you can cook but you are not a cook. Suppose you only have only 12 ounces of mayonnaise. Where will I get the four? If I understand mayonnaise. If I understand the ingredients. How it fits in a larger scheme of things I can concoct 4 ounces of pseudo mayonnaise and get by. That is bringing conceptual knowledge to the recipe. Knowledge of categories, Knowledge of connection. Conceptual knowledge takes someone who can cook and make them someone who is a cook. Metacognitive is that little thing that says optional. Garlic salt is optional. It is up to you. Do you like garlic? Do you not like garlic? It doesn’t even tell you how much garlic. It is up to you?So factual and procedural allow you to cook. Conceptual allows you to be a cook. Metacognitive allows you to be a chef if you are so inclined. But Notice when they all come together it is a entire set of types of knowledge we should building in all our course. Whether it is in cooking, social studies, science, or art. We have students in science that basically go through science on a factual- procedural basis. They know the facts and all the skills but don’t understand a thing. Without understanding they can not move to an appreciation of science. Will not use in their lives. They won’t figure out why they need to eat better or exercise.
31THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION DIMENSION KNOWLEDGE 1.REMEMBERRecognizingRecalling2.UNDERSTANDInterpretingExemplifyingClassifyingSummarizingInferringComparingExplaining3.APPLYExecutingImplementing4.ANALYZEDifferentiatingOrganizingAttributing5.EVALUATECheckingCritiquing6.CREATEGeneratingPlanningProducingFACTUAL KNOWLEDGECONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGEAudio: When you combine the cognitive process dimension with the knowledge dimension you get a two-dimensional table that we call the Taxonomy Table. The knowledge is on the left hand side. The cognitive processes categories are across the top. Underneath the processes categories you have the gerunds that talk about the specific cognitive processes. And if you add them all up, you will find there are 19 of the gerunds and 6 major categories of cognitive processes, and there are 4 major types of knowledge: factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive.PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGEMETACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE
33B. Conceptual Knowledge THE TAXONOMY TABLE1.REMEMBERRecognizingRecalling2.UNDERSTANDInterpretingExemplifyingClassifyingSummarizingInferringComparingExplaining3.APPLYExecutingImplementing4.ANALYZEDifferentiatingOrganizingAttributing5.EVALUATECheckingCritiquing6.CREATEGeneratingPlanningProducingA. Factual KnowledgeA1A2A3A4A5A6B. Conceptual KnowledgeB1B2B3B4B5B6Audio: For ease of reference, we use letter-number combinations to refer to cells of the Taxonomy Table. First one always the row and second one is the column. A1 is row A which is factual knowledge Column 1 which is remember. Objectives in A1 cell are objectives with emphasis on students remember factual knowledge. There is a lot of that out there in our curriculum right now. B2 is understand conceptual knowledge. C3 is apply procedural knowledge. D6 is create and create almost require because it is doing your own thing some metacognitive knowledge to create. In essence what you are trying to do is to use this to get an understanding of your objectives. Standards are nothing more than mandated objectives. One way to better understand the standards is to look at the standard through the lens of the taxonomy table by asking where does it fit? How many of my standards fit in A1, B2, A4. That gives you a good understanding of the way the standards are organized. So many of our students are getting an education that is an A1 C3 combo. If you look at those as 2 cells out of 24. The rest of the cells are missed opportunities –opportunities that we could help students develop but we either don’t have the time or inclination to do so. Go back to the objective from beginning. Rewrite objective using language of the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. Make sure it has a S-V-and an O. Make sure the v is one of the major categories or one of the 19 cognitive processes. Once it is rewritten look at the taxonomy and determine where it fits.We can use shorthand notation to refer to the cells. For example, A1 is Remember Factual Knowledge and C3 is Apply Procedural Knowledge.C. ProceduralKnowledgeC1C2C3C4C5C6D. MetacognitiveKnowledgeD1D2D3D4D5D6
34Construct a task that gets at D4 ActivityConstruct a task that gets at D4
35Each of the six cognitive process categories was divided into specific cognitive processes. Nineteen (19) specific cognitive processes were identified.
36The verbs provide clues as to the cognitive process category intended by the person or persons writing the standard. Adopted from the original Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, there are six cognitive process categories.
37Unlike the verbs, the objects of the standards are subject-specific (e Unlike the verbs, the objects of the standards are subject-specific (e.g., math, science, social studies). The objects specify the CONTENT of the standard. For clarity, CONTENT was replaced by KNOWLEDGE.
38Explain the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century, including NATO, the UN, and OPECScience exampleUse NC Examples
39THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling2.UNDERSTANDInterpretingExemplifyingClassifyingSummarizingInferringComparingExplaining3.APPLYExecutingImplementing4.ANALYZEDifferentiatingOrganizingAttributing5.EVALUATECheckingCritiquing6.CREATEGeneratingPlanningProducing
40including NATO, the UN, and OPEC [Extraneous information] Verb = ExplainObject = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Centuryincluding NATO, the UN, and OPEC[Extraneous information]Use NC Examples
41Verb = Explain = Understand Object = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century = Conceptual KnowledgeUse NC Examples
42Summarize the provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunitiesUse NC Examples
43Verb = SummarizeObject = Provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the ConstitutionIncluding how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities [Extraneous information]Use NC Examples
44Verb = Summarize = Understand Object = Provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution = Factual KnowledgeUse NC Examples
45Use NC Examples THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION KNOWLEDGEDIMENSION1.REMEMBERRecognizingRecalling2.UNDERSTANDInterpretingExemplifyingClassifyingSummarizingInferringComparingExplaining3.APPLYExecutingImplementing4.ANALYZEDifferentiatingOrganizingAttributing5.EVALUATECheckingCritiquing6.CREATEGeneratingPlanningProducingFACTUAL KNOWLEDGEStandard 2CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGEStandard 1PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGEMETACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGEUse NC Examples
46The SVO format of standards in combination with the two-dimensional structure of the Taxonomy Table allows us to classify standards so we better understand their intent and meaning in terms of student learning.
47Content Alignment This is about the rows in RBT “Does the teacher teach and test the topics listed in the curriculum?”Are the topics identified in the intended curriculum present in the implementation and assessment process?
48Cognitive Type Alignment This is about the columns in RBT “Do the students get to work and think at the level the curriculum prescribes?”
49Additional Benefits Increase curriculum alignment Improve validity of assessmentsImprove quality of instruction
50Instructional Activities/ Materials Curriculum AlignmentAssessmentsObjectivesCurriculum AlignmentCurriculum has three partsInstructional Activities/ Materials
51Why is Alignment Important? Increases validity of assessmentIncreases students’ opportunity to learnProvides more accurate estimates of teaching effectivenessPermits better instructional decisions to be made
52Traditional Alignment What content is included in the objective?What content is included on the assessment(s)?Is the content included in the objective and/or on the assessment included in the instructional materials?If the content is the same, there is a high level of alignment.
53Importance of Alignment Alignment is an even stronger predictor of student achievement on standardized tests than are socioeconomic status, gender, race, and teacher effect.(Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989)
54ALIGNMENT USING THE TAXONOMY TABLE Objectives Assessments Instructional ActivitiesRememberUnderstandApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreateFactualConceptualProceduralMeta-Cognitive
55Aligning Cognitive Type The Role of the TeacherAligning Cognitive Type
56RememberThe learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information.RecognisingListingDescribingIdentifyingRetrievingNamingLocatingFinding Can you recall information?Use ONLY the verbs given in Anderson’s research and book.
57Remember in the Classroom Teacher rolesDirectsTellsShowsExaminesQuestionsEvaluatesStudent rolesRespondsAbsorbsRemembersRecognisesMemorisesDefinesDescribesRetellsPassive recipient
58Task Stems for Remember Make a list of the main events of the story.Make a time line of events.Make a facts chart .Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember.Make a chart showing…Make an acrostic.
59Artifacts for Remember Make a list of the main events of the story.Make a time line of events.Make a facts chart .Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember.Make a chart showing…Make an acrostic.
60UnderstandThe learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned.InterpretingExemplifyingSummarisingInferringParaphrasingClassifyingComparingExplaining Can you explain ideas or concepts?
61Understand in the Classroom Teacher rolesDemonstratesListensQuestionsComparesContrastsExaminesStudent rolesExplainsDescribesOutlinesRestatesTranslatesDemonstratesInterpretsActive participant
62Task Stems for Understand State in your own words.Which are facts?What does this mean?Is this the same as. . .?Give an example.Select the best definition.What would happen if . . .?Explain what is happening.What part doesn't fit?Explain what is meant.What seems likely?Which statements support . . ?
63Artifacts for Understand Write in your own words…Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events .Write a brief outline to explain this story to someone elseExplain why the character solved the problem in this particular wayWrite a summary report of the event.Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events.Paraphrase this chapter in the book.Retell in your own words.Outline the main points.Use pictures to show a particular event.Illustrate what you think the main idea may have been.
64Apply The learner makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned.ImplementingCarrying outUsingExecuting Can you use the information in anotherfamiliar situation?
65Apply in the Classroom Teacher roles Shows Facilitates Observes EvaluatesOrganisesQuestionsStudent rolesSolves problemsDemonstrates use of knowledgeCalculatesCompilesCompletesIllustratesConstructsActive Participant
66Task Stems for Apply Predict what would happen if Choose the best statements that applyJudge the effectsWhat would resultTell what would happenTell how, when, where, whyTell how much change there would be
67Artifacts for ApplyConstruct a model to demonstrate how it looks or worksPractise a play and perform it for the classMake a diorama to illustrate an eventWrite a diary entryTake and display a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point.Make up a puzzle or a game about the topic.Write an explanation about this topic for others.Continue the story…
68AnalyzeThe learner breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information.ComparingOrganisingDeconstructingAttributingOutliningFindingStructuringIntegratingCan you break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships?
69Analyze in the Classroom Teacher rolesProbesGuidesObservesEvaluatesActs as a resourceQuestionsOrganisesDissectsStudent rolesDiscussesUncoversArguesDebatesThinks deeplyTestsExaminesQuestionsCalculatesInvestigatesInquiresActive participant
70Task Stems for Analyze Which events could not have happened? If. ..happened, what might the ending have been?How is...similar to...?What do you see as other possible outcomes?Why did...changes occur?Can you explain what must have happened when...?What are some or the problems of...?Can you distinguish between...?What were some of the motives behind..?What was the turning point?What was the problem…?
71Artifacts for AnalyzeUse a Venn Diagram to show how two topics are the same and differentDesign a questionnaire to gather information.Survey classmates to find out what they think about a particular topic. Analyse the results.Make a flow chart to show the critical stages.Classify the actions of the characters in the bookCreate a sociogram from the narrativeConstruct a graph to illustrate selected information.Make a family tree showing relationships.Devise a roleplay about the study area.Write a biography of a person studied.Prepare a report about the area of study.Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view.Review a work of art in terms of form, colour and texture.Draw a graphComplete a Decision Making Matrix to help you decide which breakfast cereal to purchaseWrite a commercial to sell a new product
72EvaluateThe learner makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment.CheckingHypothesisingCritiquingExperimentingJudgingTestingDetectingMonitoring Can you justify a decision or course of action?
73Evaluate in the Classroom Teacher rolesClarifiesAcceptsGuidesStudent rolesJudgesDisputesComparesCritiquesQuestionsArguesAssessesDecidesSelectsJustifiesActive participant
74Task Stems for Evaluate Is there a better solution to...?Judge the value of... What do you think about...?Can you defend your position about...?Do you think...is a good or bad thing?How would you have handled...?What changes to.. would you recommend?Do you believe...? How would you feel if. ..?How effective are. ..?
75Artifacts for Evaluate Write a letter to the editorPrepare and conduct a debatePrepare a list of criteria to judge…Write a persuasive speech arguing for/against…Make a booklet about five rules you see as important. Convince others.Form a panel to discuss viewpoints on….Write a letter to. ..advising on changes needed.Write a half-yearly report.Prepare a case to present your view about...Complete a PMI on…Evaluate the character’s actions in the story
76CreateThe learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned.DesigningConstructingPlanningProducingInventingDevisingMaking Can you generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things?
77Create in the Classroom Teacher rolesFacilitatesExtendsReflectsAnalysesEvaluatesStudent rolesDesignsFormulatesPlansTakes risksModifiesCreatesProposesActive participant
78Task Stems for Create Can you design a...to...? Can you see a possible solution to...?If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...?How could you devise your own way to...?What would happen if ...?How many ways can you...?Can you create new and unusual uses for...?
79Artifacts for CreateUse the SCAMPER strategy to invent a new type of sports shoeInvent a machine to do a specific task.Design a robot to do your homework.Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign.Write about your feelings in relation to...Write a TV show play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about..Design a new monetary systemDevelop a menu for a new restaurant using a variety of healthy foodsDesign a record, book or magazine cover for...Sell an ideaDevise a way to...Make up a new language and use it in an exampleWrite a jingle to advertise a new product.Design a building to house your study.Write a TV show play, puppet show, song or pantomime about..
80What Kind of Thinking is This? Carefully observe adult butterflies, then describe the various body parts to a partner.Make an entry in your science notebook to diagram the location of the body parts of an adult butterflyReplace this drawing with an original sketch
81Carefully observe an adult butterfly The Knowledge DimensionThe Cognitive Process Dimension1.Remember2.Understand3.Apply4.Analyze5.Evaluate6.CreateA.FactualB.ConceptualC.ProceduralD.Meta- Cognitive
82describe the various body parts of an adult butterfly The Knowledge DimensionThe Cognitive Process Dimension1.Remember2.Understand3.Apply4.Analyze5.Evaluate6.CreateA.FactualB.ConceptualC.ProceduralD.Meta- Cognitive
83diagram the location of the body parts of an adult butterfly The Knowledge DimensionThe Cognitive Process Dimension1.Remember2.Understand3.Apply4.Analyze5.Evaluate6.CreateA.FactualB.ConceptualC.ProceduralD.Meta- Cognitive
84What Kind of Thinking is This? Get permission from Learn NC to useUse a triple Venn diagram to record what you know about dogs, humans and lizzards
85The Cognitive Process Dimension Use a triple Venn diagram to record what you know about dogs, humans and lizardsThe Knowledge DimensionThe Cognitive Process Dimension1.Remember2.Understand3.Apply4.Analyze5.Evaluate6.CreateA.FactualB.ConceptualC.ProceduralD.Meta- Cognitive