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The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview. Organizing Questions For Curriculum Development 1. What is important for students to learn in the limited school.

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Presentation on theme: "The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview. Organizing Questions For Curriculum Development 1. What is important for students to learn in the limited school."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview

2 Organizing Questions For Curriculum Development 1. What is important for students to learn in the limited school and classroom time available? 2. How does one plan and deliver instruction that will result in high levels of learning for large numbers of students? 3. How does one select or design assessment instruments and procedures that provide accurate information about how well students are learning? 4. How does one ensure that objectives, instruction, and assessment are consistent with one another?

3 Learning occurs best when there is: A purposeful process that aligns what is: A purposeful process that aligns what is: –Written –Taught –Tested Attention to both: Attention to both: –Content –Cognitive Type

4 Importance of Alignment Alignment is an even stronger predictor of student achievement on standardized tests than are socioeconomic status, gender, race, and teacher effect. Alignment is an even stronger predictor of student achievement on standardized tests than are socioeconomic status, gender, race, and teacher effect. (Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989) (Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989)

5 Taxonomies are tools for aligning

6 Think about all who are responsible for student achievement

7 The Department of Public Instruction Deploys STANDARDS The Department of Public Instruction Deploys STANDARDS The District Designs The District Designs LOCAL CURRICULUM LOCAL CURRICULUM The Teachers Design INSTRUCTION The Teachers Design INSTRUCTION Student Achievement is a Shared Responsibility

8 Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework A taxonomy of educational objectives “could do much to bring order out of chaos in the field of education. It could furnish the conceptual framework around which our descriptions of educational programs and experiences could be oriented. It could furnish a framework for the development of educational theories and research. It could furnish the scheme needed for training our teachers and for orienting them to the varied possibilities of education” (Bloom, 1949)

9 Bloom’s is familiar to MOST educators Show old model Show old model Voiceover, “It has its limitations” Voiceover, “It has its limitations”

10 It has limitations The single dimension of the original Bloom’s Taxonomy limits its utility in well aligned instructional design. The single dimension of the original Bloom’s Taxonomy limits its utility in well aligned instructional design.

11 INSTRUCTION Teachers provide learning experiences, aligned with local curriculum expectations, to prepare students to meet the standards set by the state Teachers provide learning experiences, aligned with local curriculum expectations, to prepare students to meet the standards set by the state These learning experiences are framed by objectives These learning experiences are framed by objectives

12 Objectives are statements of what a teacher wants students to learn as a result of the instruction provided. Standards are simply mandated objectives.

13 The Common Format of Objectives Subject Verb Object S V O

14 Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Bloom’s is familiar to MOST educators

15 Bloom Revised Bloom Remember Apply Understand Analyze Evaluate Create Evaluation Analysis Synthesis Application Comprehension Knowledge

16 Activity Examine the science objective below to determine if it represents the old or revised Bloom. Explain your answer. Illustrate the motion of an object using a graph to show a change in position over a period of time.

17 The student (will) The student (should) The students (might) The SUBJECT is the Learner or the Student. Quite often, the subject is implicit or understood.

18 THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGEDIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE

19 The Cognitive Process Dimension The Cognitive Process Dimension contains six categories The Cognitive Process Dimension contains six categories Each category contains two or more specific cognitive processes. Each category contains two or more specific cognitive processes. When all six categories are considered, there is a total of 19 cognitive processes When all six categories are considered, there is a total of 19 cognitive processes

20 Cognitive Processes Remember Remember Understand Understand Recognizing Recognizing Recalling Recalling Interpreting Interpreting Exemplifying Exemplifying Classifying Classifying Summarizing Summarizing Inferring Inferring Comparing Comparing Explaining Explaining

21 Cognitive Processes (continued) Apply Apply Analyze Analyze Evaluate Evaluate Create Create Executing Executing Implementing Implementing Differentiating Differentiating Organizing Organizing Attributing Attributing Checking Checking Critiquing Critiquing Generating Generating Planning Planning Producing Producing

22 The object of objectives contains the content to be learned.

23 In order to form categories we need to shift from CONTENT to KNOWLEDGE.

24 What are Differences Between Content and Knowledge? Content exists outside the student. A major problem, then, is how to get the content inside the student. Content exists outside the student. A major problem, then, is how to get the content inside the student. Content is subject-matter specific. Content is subject-matter specific.

25 Four Types of Knowledge Factual Knowledge Factual Knowledge Conceptual Knowledge Conceptual Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Metacognitive Knowledge Metacognitive Knowledge

26 Factual Knowledge Terminology Terminology Specific details Specific details

27 Conceptual Knowledge Classifications and categories Classifications and categories Principles and generalizations Principles and generalizations Theories, models, and structures Theories, models, and structures

28 Procedural Knowledge Subject-specific skills and algorithms Subject-specific skills and algorithms Subject-specific techniques and methods Subject-specific techniques and methods Criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures Criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures

29 Metacognitive Knowledge Strategic knowledge Strategic knowledge Knowledge about cognitive tasks Knowledge about cognitive tasks Self-knowledge Self-knowledge

30 HOT ARTICHOKE DIP (Serves 10 to 14) 2 14-oz cans artichoke hearts 16 oz. mayonnaise 1 c. grated Parmesan cheese Garlic salt (optional) ==================================== 1.Drain artichoke hearts. 2.Mash artichokes with fork. 3.Mix with mayonnaise, cheese, and garlic salt. 4.Bake at 350 degrees for 15 minutes or until cheese is melted. 5.Serve with crackers or party rye.

31 THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGEDIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE

32 How it Works

33 THE TAXONOMY TABLE D6 D6 D5 D5 D4 D4 D3 D3 D2 D2 D1 D1 D. Metacognitive Knowledge C6 C6 C5 C5 C4 C4 C3 C3 C2 C2 C1 C1 C. Procedural Knowledge B6 B6 B5 B5 B4 B4 B3 B3 B2 B2 B1 B1 B. Conceptual Knowledge A6 A6 A5 A5 A4 A4 A3 A3 A2 A2 A1 A1 A. Factual Knowledge 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing

34 Activity Construct a task that gets at D4

35 Each of the six cognitive process categories was divided into specific cognitive processes. Nineteen (19) specific cognitive processes were identified.

36 The verbs provide clues as to the cognitive process category intended by the person or persons writing the standard. Adopted from the original Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, there are six cognitive process categories.

37 Unlike the verbs, the objects of the standards are subject-specific (e.g., math, science, social studies). The objects specify the CONTENT of the standard. For clarity, CONTENT was replaced by KNOWLEDGE.

38 Explain the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20 th Century, including NATO, the UN, and OPEC Use NC Examples

39 THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing

40 Verb = Explain Verb = Explain the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century Object = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century including NATO, the UN, and OPEC [Extraneous information] [Extraneous information] Use NC Examples

41 Verb = Explain = Understand Verb = Explain = Understand the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century = Conceptual Knowledge Object = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century = Conceptual Knowledge Use NC Examples

42 Summarize the provisions of the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments to the Constitution, including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities Use NC Examples

43 Verb = Summarize Verb = Summarize Object = Provisions of the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments to the Constitution Including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities [Extraneous information] Use NC Examples

44 Verb = Summarize = Understand Verb = Summarize = Understand Object = Provisions of the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments to the Constitution = Factual Knowledge Use NC Examples

45 THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION Standard 1 FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGEDIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE Standard 2 Use NC Examples

46 The SVO format of standards in combination with the two- dimensional structure of the Taxonomy Table allows us to classify standards so we better understand their intent and meaning in terms of student learning.

47 Content Alignment This is about the rows in RBT “Does the teacher teach and test the topics listed in the curriculum?”

48 Cognitive Type Alignment This is about the columns in RBT “Do the students get to work and think at the level the curriculum prescribes?”

49 Additional Benefits Increase curriculum alignment Increase curriculum alignment Improve validity of assessments Improve validity of assessments Improve quality of instruction Improve quality of instruction

50 Curriculum Alignment Assessments Objectives Instructional Activities/ Materials Curriculum Alignment

51 Why is Alignment Important? Increases validity of assessment Increases validity of assessment Increases students’ opportunity to learn Increases students’ opportunity to learn Provides more accurate estimates of teaching effectiveness Provides more accurate estimates of teaching effectiveness Permits better instructional decisions to be made Permits better instructional decisions to be made

52 Traditional Alignment What content is included in the objective? What content is included in the objective? What content is included on the assessment(s)? What content is included on the assessment(s)? Is the content included in the objective and/or on the assessment included in the instructional materials? Is the content included in the objective and/or on the assessment included in the instructional materials? If the content is the same, there is a high level of alignment. If the content is the same, there is a high level of alignment.

53 Importance of Alignment Alignment is an even stronger predictor of student achievement on standardized tests than are socioeconomic status, gender, race, and teacher effect. Alignment is an even stronger predictor of student achievement on standardized tests than are socioeconomic status, gender, race, and teacher effect. (Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989) (Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989)

54 ALIGNMENT USING THE TAXONOMY TABLE ObjectivesAssessments Instructional Activities RememberUnderstandApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreate Factual Conceptual Procedural Meta-Cognitive

55 The Role of the Teacher Aligning Cognitive Type

56 Remember The learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information. –Recognising –Listing –Describing –Identifying –Retrieving –Naming –Locating –Finding Can you recall information? Can you recall information?

57 Remember in the Classroom Teacher roles Directs Directs Tells Tells Shows Shows Examines Examines Questions Questions Evaluates Evaluates Student roles Responds Responds Absorbs Absorbs Remembers Remembers Recognises Recognises Memorises Memorises Defines Defines Describes Describes Retells Retells Passive recipient Passive recipient

58 Task Stems for Remember Make a list of the main events of the story. Make a list of the main events of the story. Make a time line of events. Make a time line of events. Make a facts chart. Make a facts chart. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. Make a chart showing… Make a chart showing… Make an acrostic. Make an acrostic.

59 Artifacts for Remember Make a list of the main events of the story. Make a list of the main events of the story. Make a time line of events. Make a time line of events. Make a facts chart. Make a facts chart. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. Make a chart showing… Make a chart showing… Make an acrostic. Make an acrostic.

60 Understand The learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned. –Interpreting –Exemplifying –Summarising –Inferring –Paraphrasing –Classifying –Comparing –Explaining Can you explain ideas or concepts? Can you explain ideas or concepts?

61 Understand in the Classroom Teacher roles Demonstrates Demonstrates Listens Listens Questions Questions Compares Compares Contrasts Contrasts Examines Examines Student roles Explains Explains Describes Describes Outlines Outlines Restates Restates Translates Translates Demonstrates Demonstrates Interprets Interprets Active participant Active participant

62 Task Stems for Understand State in your own words. State in your own words. Which are facts? Which are facts? What does this mean? What does this mean? Is this the same as...? Is this the same as...? Give an example. Give an example. Select the best definition. Select the best definition. What would happen if...? What would happen if...? Explain what is happening. Explain what is happening. What part doesn't fit? What part doesn't fit? Explain what is meant. Explain what is meant. What seems likely? What seems likely? Which statements support.. ? Which statements support.. ?

63 Artifacts for Understand Write in your own words… Write in your own words… Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Write a brief outline to explain this story to someone else Write a brief outline to explain this story to someone else Explain why the character solved the problem in this particular way Explain why the character solved the problem in this particular way Write a summary report of the event. Write a summary report of the event. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events. Paraphrase this chapter in the book. Paraphrase this chapter in the book. Retell in your own words. Retell in your own words. Outline the main points. Outline the main points. Use pictures to show a particular event. Use pictures to show a particular event. Illustrate what you think the main idea may have been. Illustrate what you think the main idea may have been.

64 Apply The learner makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned. The learner makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned. –Implementing –Carrying out –Using –Executing Can you use the information in another Can you use the information in another familiar situation?

65 Apply in the Classroom Teacher roles Shows Shows Facilitates Facilitates Observes Observes Evaluates Evaluates Organises Organises Questions Questions Student roles Solves problems Solves problems Demonstrates use of knowledge Demonstrates use of knowledge Calculates Calculates Compiles Compiles Completes Completes Illustrates Illustrates Constructs Constructs Active Participant Active Participant

66 Task Stems for Apply Predict what would happen if Predict what would happen if Choose the best statements that apply Choose the best statements that apply Judge the effects Judge the effects What would result What would result Tell what would happen Tell what would happen Tell how, when, where, why Tell how, when, where, why Tell how much change there would be Tell how much change there would be

67 Artifacts for Apply Construct a model to demonstrate how it looks or works Construct a model to demonstrate how it looks or works Practise a play and perform it for the class Practise a play and perform it for the class Make a diorama to illustrate an event Make a diorama to illustrate an event Write a diary entry Write a diary entry Take and display a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point. Take and display a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point. Make up a puzzle or a game about the topic. Make up a puzzle or a game about the topic. Write an explanation about this topic for others. Write an explanation about this topic for others. Continue the story… Continue the story…

68 Analyze The learner breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information. –Comparing –Organising –Deconstructing –Attributing –Outlining –Finding –Structuring –Integrating Can you break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships?

69 Analyze in the Classroom Teacher roles Probes Probes Guides Guides Observes Observes Evaluates Evaluates Acts as a resource Acts as a resource Questions Questions Organises Organises Dissects Dissects Student roles Discusses Discusses Uncovers Uncovers Argues Argues Debates Debates Thinks deeply Thinks deeply Tests Tests Examines Examines Questions Questions Calculates Calculates Investigates Investigates Inquires Inquires Active participant Active participant

70 Task Stems for Analyze Which events could not have happened? Which events could not have happened? If...happened, what might the ending have been? If...happened, what might the ending have been? How is...similar to...? How is...similar to...? What do you see as other possible outcomes? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did...changes occur? Why did...changes occur? Can you explain what must have happened when...? Can you explain what must have happened when...? What are some or the problems of...? What are some or the problems of...? Can you distinguish between...? Can you distinguish between...? What were some of the motives behind..? What were some of the motives behind..? What was the turning point? What was the turning point? What was the problem…? What was the problem…?

71 Artifacts for Analyze Use a Venn Diagram to show how two topics are the same and different Use a Venn Diagram to show how two topics are the same and different Design a questionnaire to gather information. Design a questionnaire to gather information. Survey classmates to find out what they think about a particular topic. Analyse the results. Survey classmates to find out what they think about a particular topic. Analyse the results. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages. Classify the actions of the characters in the book Classify the actions of the characters in the book Create a sociogram from the narrative Create a sociogram from the narrative Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. Make a family tree showing relationships. Make a family tree showing relationships. Devise a roleplay about the study area. Devise a roleplay about the study area. Write a biography of a person studied. Write a biography of a person studied. Prepare a report about the area of study. Prepare a report about the area of study. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view. Review a work of art in terms of form, colour and texture. Review a work of art in terms of form, colour and texture. Draw a graph Draw a graph Complete a Decision Making Matrix to help you decide which breakfast cereal to purchase Complete a Decision Making Matrix to help you decide which breakfast cereal to purchase Write a commercial to sell a new product Write a commercial to sell a new product Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. Make a family tree showing relationships. Make a family tree showing relationships. Write a biography of a person studied. Write a biography of a person studied.

72 Evaluate The learner makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment. –Checking –Hypothesising –Critiquing –Experimenting –Judging –Testing –Detecting –Monitoring Can you justify a decision or course of action? Can you justify a decision or course of action?

73 Evaluate in the Classroom Teacher roles Clarifies Clarifies Accepts Accepts Guides Guides Student roles Judges Judges Disputes Disputes Compares Compares Critiques Critiques Questions Questions Argues Argues Assesses Assesses Decides Decides Selects Selects Justifies Justifies Active participant Active participant

74 Task Stems for Evaluate Is there a better solution to...? Is there a better solution to...? Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Can you defend your position about...? Can you defend your position about...? Do you think...is a good or bad thing? Do you think...is a good or bad thing? How would you have handled...? How would you have handled...? What changes to.. would you recommend? What changes to.. would you recommend? Do you believe...? How would you feel if...? Do you believe...? How would you feel if...? How effective are...? How effective are...?

75 Artifacts for Evaluate Write a letter to the editor Write a letter to the editor Prepare and conduct a debate Prepare and conduct a debate Prepare a list of criteria to judge… Prepare a list of criteria to judge… Write a persuasive speech arguing for/against… Write a persuasive speech arguing for/against… Make a booklet about five rules you see as important. Convince others. Make a booklet about five rules you see as important. Convince others. Form a panel to discuss viewpoints on…. Form a panel to discuss viewpoints on…. Write a letter to...advising on changes needed. Write a letter to...advising on changes needed. Write a half-yearly report. Write a half-yearly report. Prepare a case to present your view about... Prepare a case to present your view about... Complete a PMI on… Complete a PMI on… Evaluate the character’s actions in the story Evaluate the character’s actions in the story

76 Create The learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned. –Designing –Constructing –Planning –Producing –Inventing –Devising –Making Can you generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things? Can you generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things?

77 Create in the Classroom Teacher roles Facilitates Facilitates Extends Extends Reflects Reflects Analyses Analyses Evaluates Evaluates Student roles Designs Designs Formulates Formulates Plans Plans Takes risks Takes risks Modifies Modifies Creates Creates Proposes Proposes Active participant Active participant

78 Task Stems for Create Can you design a...to...? Can you design a...to...? Can you see a possible solution to...? Can you see a possible solution to...? If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...? If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...? How could you devise your own way to...? How could you devise your own way to...? What would happen if...? What would happen if...? How many ways can you...? How many ways can you...? Can you create new and unusual uses for...? Can you create new and unusual uses for...?

79 Artifacts for Create Use the SCAMPER strategy to invent a new type of sports shoe Use the SCAMPER strategy to invent a new type of sports shoe Invent a machine to do a specific task. Invent a machine to do a specific task. Design a robot to do your homework. Design a robot to do your homework. Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. Write about your feelings in relation to... Write about your feelings in relation to... Write a TV show play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about.. Write a TV show play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about.. Design a new monetary system Design a new monetary system Develop a menu for a new restaurant using a variety of healthy foods Develop a menu for a new restaurant using a variety of healthy foods Design a record, book or magazine cover for... Design a record, book or magazine cover for... Sell an idea Sell an idea Devise a way to... Devise a way to... Make up a new language and use it in an example Make up a new language and use it in an example Write a jingle to advertise a new product. Write a jingle to advertise a new product. Invent a machine to do a specific task. Invent a machine to do a specific task. Design a building to house your study. Design a building to house your study. Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. Write a TV show play, puppet show, song or pantomime about.. Write a TV show play, puppet show, song or pantomime about.. Design a record, book or magazine cover for... Design a record, book or magazine cover for... Sell an idea Sell an idea

80 What Kind of Thinking is This? Carefully observe adult butterflies, then describe the various body parts to a partner. Make an entry in your science notebook to diagram the location of the body parts of an adult butterfly Replace this drawing with an original sketch

81 Carefully observe an adult butterfly The Knowledge Dimension The Cognitive Process Dimension 1. Remember 2. Understand 3. Apply 4. Analyze 5. Evaluate 6. Create A. Factual B. Conceptual C. Procedural D. Meta- Cognitive

82 describe the various body parts of an adult butterfly The Knowledge Dimension The Cognitive Process Dimension 1. Remember 2. Understand 3. Apply 4. Analyze 5. Evaluate 6. Create A. Factual B. Conceptual C. Procedural D. Meta- Cognitive

83 diagram the location of the body parts of an adult butterfly The Knowledge Dimension The Cognitive Process Dimension 1. Remember 2. Understand 3. Apply 4. Analyze 5. Evaluate 6. Create A. Factual B. Conceptual C. Procedural D. Meta- Cognitive

84 What Kind of Thinking is This? Use a triple Venn diagram to record what you know about dogs, humans and lizzards Get permission from Learn NC to use

85 Use a triple Venn diagram to record what you know about dogs, humans and lizards The Knowledge Dimension The Cognitive Process Dimension 1. Remember 2. Understand 3. Apply 4. Analyze 5. Evaluate 6. Create A. Factual B. Conceptual C. Procedural D. Meta- Cognitive


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