Presentation on theme: "Israelite History Thousands of Years of Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Israelite History Thousands of Years of Development Part I by Jack Mahoney Part II by Gina Belmonte
2Six Major Middle Eastern Empires In biblical history, the land of Israel/Palestine was ruled by six major empires:EgyptiansAssyriansBabyloniansPersiansGreeksRomansMnemonic Aid: “Eat At Bob’s, Pasadena’s Greatest Restaurant”
3Pre-Historic Period 3760 BCE - traditional date of creation of world Year 1 in Jewish calendarIs Gen 1-11 factual history (Orthodox/Fundamentalist view)?or foundational myths about basic theological truths (Liberal/Progressive view)?
4HEBREW / ISRAELITE PERIOD (2nd Millennium to ca. 539 BCE) ca ca BCE - EGYPTIAN are overlords of area that later belongs to Jewish people, or today’s Israel.ca Foundations of Israelite People under Patriarchs/ Ancestors; God promises to give Holy Land to Abraham’s descendants
5Patriarchs 1) ABRAHAM & Sarah (+ her handmaid Hagar) 2) Isaac & Rebekah (+ elder half-brother Ishmael, son of Hagar)3) Jacob = Israel (two wives, Leah & Rachel, & two handmaids, Zilpah & Bilhah)4) Twelve Sons of Jacob = 12 Tribes of Israel (Judah = "Royal Tribe"; Levi = "Priestly Tribe"; Joseph; Benjamin; etc.)
6Moses & the Exodus Generation ca Israelites (a.k.a. Hebrews) in Egypt (since time of Joseph, the "dreamer"); welcome at first, but later in slaveryca MOSES and the Exodus –Plagues; Passover; Exodus from Egypt;Torah/Covenant on Mount Sinai;Wandering in the Desert for 40 years(books of Exodus - Deuteronomy)Have Jews learned more from troubled eras than from good eras?What elements of Jewish faith are tied to the Exodus?
7Joshua and the Judgesca – after Moses’ death, conquest of Promised Land led by JoshuaLoose confederation of 12 tribes of IsraelCharismatic military/political leaders called "Judges“:Samson, Deborah, etc.Events recorded in books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth
8United Kingdom of Israel: The Golden Age ca tribes in one united monarchy; first ruler King Saul; continual war with Philistinesca Jerusalem conquered by King DAVID’s army; made capital of all Israel; David expands kingdom; God promises House of David will rule Israel forever (2 Sam 7)ca First Temple built in Jerusalem by David’s son, King Solomon; worship centralizedca Death of Solomon; throne succession struggles; kingdom divides into two parts: North vs. South
9Divided Monarchies (922 BCE - 587 BCE) North"Kingdom of Israel"; ruled by several series of corrupt kings;721 - fall of Northern Kingdom & capital Samaria to ASSYRIANS; deportation of most Israelites; importation of foreigners into areas of former IsraelSouth"Kingdom of Judah"; ruled by David’s descendants: some bad, some good;720's - religious reforms under King Hezekiah; resistance against Assyrian takeover620's - religious reforms of King Josiah; Deuteronomy
10Babylonian Conquest of Judah 605 - Babylon defeats Egypt; territory of Judah becomes part of Babylonian Empire597 - First unsuccessful revolt of Judah vs. Babylon; ruling elite of Judah exiled to Babylon587 - Another unsuccessful revolt of Judah vs. Babylon; total destruction of Jerusalem city & temple by Babylonians
11Questions to ConsiderDo you think the Babylonian exile foreshadowed a dark history to come?To what extent is State of Israel today grounded on the biblical history and religious beliefs of the Jews?
12Babylonian ExileBCE - most upper-class Jews (officials, priests, artisans) deported to Babylon; others flee to Egypt, etc.;much of HB written, esp. major prophets; final compilation of Torah (Genesis to Deuteronomy) & Deuteronomistic History (Joshua to 2 Kings) by Judean scribes living in exile in Babylon.
13Persian Period 539 BCE – Babylonian empire conquered by Persians King Cyrus allows all exiles to return to their homelandsUrges reconstruction of city & temple of JerusalemBook of Ezra & Nehemiah gives accountCa. 520 – rebuilding of Second Temple in JerusalemNot as nice or large as Solomon’s TempleCa – more exiles return to JerusalemLed by priest Ezra & governor NehemiahSome Jews stay in other parts of the Middle East, sometimes in conflict with other nations.Book of Esther
15Hellenistic/Greek Era 334 – Alexander the Great begins conquest of Persian Empire (cf. Daniel 11:1-4)Hellenization = establishment of Greek language, religion, culture, government throughout East (2 Macc 4:13-15)323 Alexander dies; empire divided among four generals (Daniel 7)Hellenistic Empire Divides (cf. 1 Maccabees 1-7)Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt controls Palestine BCESeleucid dynasty from Syria rules Palestine BCECa. 250 BCE – Septuagint (LXX)HB translated into Greek in Alexandria, EgyptMore books added; categories rearranged
17Maccabean Era167 BCE – Desecration of Jerusalem Temple by Seleucid ruler, Antiochus IV EpiphanesStatues of Greek godsSparks revolt of Jews led by Judas “Maccabeus” ( )Events recorded in First & Second Book of Maccabees164 – Maccabean Revolt’s first main success: rededication of the Jerusalem Temple (2 Macc 8)Hannukah, the Feast of Lightsca – Short independence and expansion of Israel under Maccabean/Hasmonean rulers
18Hasmonean DynastyBC – Hasmoneans rule Israel several generationsRivalries among various Jewish GroupsPharisees:Popular group, mostly laymenStrict observance of laws and traditionsSadducees:Smaller elite group, mostly priestsfollowed Torah, rejected new traditions.Essenes:Small group, lived “monastic” lifestyle near Dead SeaAssociated with Dead Sea Scrolls
19Roman Era63 BCE – ca. 650 CE63 – Roman army under General Pompey takes over Middle East40-4 BCE – King Herod the GreatNamed “King” by Roman SenateFights to gain control over IsraelBuilds cities with Roman temples, fortresses;expands Jerusalem Temple.4BCE – Herod dies;Kingdom divided between three sons and one sister
21During & After King Herod Herod (40-4 BCE)6-4BC Jesus born in Bethlehem, raised in NazarethPharisees - (2nd cent. BCE – 1st cent. CE)Precursors of “rabbis” (founders of “rabbinic Judaism”)Followed laws of HB; also “traditions of the elders”NT: Opponents of Jesus (Matt 23, Mark 8:11, Luke 12:1)High PriestsMembers of Tribe of LeviLeaders of Jewish people; control TempleCaiaphas: arrest & conviction of Jesus (Matt 26:3, John 11:49-53)Roman Procurators (esp. Pilate 26-36CE)Governors of provinces (e.g. Judea)Military, civil & criminal jurisdictionJews had much self-government, run by SanhedrinDeath penalty had to be approved & executed by Roman Procurator
22First Jewish Revolt66-74 CE – Jewish war vs. Rome begins in Galilee & JerusalemRecorded in Josephus’ Jewish War68 CE – Most of Judea recaptured by Romans (General Vespasian)Emperor Nero dies; Pause in war; 3 short-lived Emperors70 CE – Jerusalem captured by Roman Army under General Titus (Emperor Vespasian’s son); city burned; Second Temple destroyed
23Summary and Review 539 BCE – Persians (King Cyrus) conquer Babylon rebuilding of 2nd Temple of Jerusalem334 BCE – Alexander the Great & Hellenization of Mideast323 – Alex dies; Empire divides: Ptolemies & Seleucids167 BCE – Desecration of Temple by Antiochus IVleads to Maccabean Revolt; Temple rededicated 16463 BCE – ca. 650 CE – Romans Control Mideast40-4 BCE – King Herod the GreatCa. 30 CE – Jesus’ crucifixion under Pontius Pilate70 CE – destruction of 2nd Temple of Jerusalem