2 When conducting international business, it is important to “build bridges.”
3 To describe the forms of nonverbal communication To discuss how culture affects nonverbal communication
4 To identify methods for overcoming communication problems and developing effective messages
5 Understanding the role of nonverbal communication contributes to building strong relationships.
6 nonverbal communication sending messages without the use of words gift an item given to convey good will
7 bribe an item or money offered to entice the receiver to do something illegal expatriate a person who relocates in a foreign country to live and/or conduct business
8 acculturation the process of understanding, adapting to, and operating in a foreign culture
9 Forms of Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication can focus on facial expressions, gestures, and posture. nonverbal communication sending messages without the use of words
10 Forms of Nonverbal Communication Signals that Send Nonverbal Messages Cultural factors Methods of communication Specific business activities
11 Cultural Factors and Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Cultural Factors Numbers Emblems Personal appearance and dress Colors Smells Foods
12 Numbers In the American culture, the number 13 is unlucky. In Asia the number 11 is considered unlucky.
13 Emblems Wearing a cross as a piece of jewelry does not evoke much of a reaction in the United States, but it might cause resentment in a country such as Saudi Arabia.
14 Personal Appearance and Dress There are different customs regarding shaving around the world. The Jewish and Israeli tradition requires that a man must cover his head. In the United States, men often remove their hats while eating dinner.
15 Colors In China and Taiwan, the color red indicates celebration. In Italy the color purple indicates penance. The color white can symbolize death in some cultures.
16 Smells A heavy dose of cologne might bother people in some cultures.
17 Foods Be aware of vegetarian cultures and those that prohibit specific foods or ingredients. Know when you are being honored or flattered when served a delicacy.
18 Nonverbal Methods of Communication Nonverbal Communication Methods Time Silence Space Body Contact Eye Contact
19 Time Views on time affect punctuality, or habits of being on time associated with good or bad manners. Dining and resting take place on different schedules in other parts of the world.
20 Silence In Taiwan it is rude to sit quietly and not maintain an active conversation. In some countries silence may indicate respect and attention.
21 Personal Space In the United States, people tend to stand far apart when they speak. In Middle Eastern countries, standing far away indicates distrust.
22 Body and Eye Contact In many Arab countries, holding hands is commonplace. In the United States, failure to make eye contact may be considered rude or evasive. In many Asian countries, looking away while you speak is a sign of respect.
23 Body and Eye Contact Relate What distance is too close for you when speaking to a new acquaintance?
24 Business Behaviors in Other Countries Building long-term business relationships requires knowing about behavior related to: Major holidays Giving and receiving gifts Business visits and entertainment
25 Major Holidays All international business dealings are affected by the holidays in other countries. Holidays may involve more than just taking a day off from school or from work.
26 Major Holidays Religious HolidaysSecular Holidays Fasting is important in many religions. Most nations have a national holiday similar to Independence Day. Many Catholics do not eat meat on Fridays during the season of Lent. Some countries celebrate their history or culture. Muslims fast during the entire month of Ramadan. Some holidays require either giving or eating food.
27 Giving and Receiving Gifts Common and acceptable gifts include: Flowers Pens Books Chocolates Avoid giving flowers that are white or yellow. In many countries, those colors are associated with death. In Germany red roses are associated with a romantic attachment. Liquor is offensive to people in Islamic countries.
28 Giving and Receiving Gifts In Japan and Asia, good manners dictate bringing a gift when meeting a business partner. Do not unwrap the gift in front of the gift giver.
29 Giving and Receiving Gifts There is a big difference between a gift and a bribe. gift an item given to convey good will bribe an item or money offered to entice the receiver to do something illegal
30 Giving and Receiving Gifts The careful study of appropriate business behaviors is a major part of preparing to live in another country as an expatriate. expatriate a person who relocates in a foreign country to live and/or conduct business
31 Giving and Receiving Gifts Preparing to relocate to another country requires the process of acculturation. acculturation the process of understanding, adapting to, and operating in a foreign country
32 Business Behavior and Communication Doing business internationally also requires understanding two aspects that relate to nonverbal communication: 1.Major business protocols and the proper steps for receiving business visitors 2.Business entertainment customs in various parts of the world
33 Business Protocol Typical Aspects of Business Protocol Greetings and introductionsAcceptable and proper gestures Use of names and titlesGift giving Business card etiquetteConducting business meetings MannersTable manners Type of dress Visiting the home of a business associate
34 Business Protocol Before a meeting, learn about the businessperson and his or her culture. Know the proper greetings. Know the proper forms of address. Use appropriate gestures.
35 Conducting a Meeting 1.Set an appointment. 2.Arrive at the appropriate time. 3.Arrange the office and materials. 4.Make introductions. 5.Present gifts. 6.Greet your business associate. 7.Speak formally or informally. 8.Make eye contact or not. 9.Signal that you have reached or not reached an agreement. 10.Close the meeting and say “good-bye.”
36 Business Entertainment Business entertainment should be carefully planned. The organizer should create a budget and set a time for the event. Account for differences in arrival times, depending on the culture involved.
37 Location Selection Arrange transportation for your guests. Arrange for an appropriate reception of your guests. Select menu and beverage items carefully.
38 Varieties of Business Entertainment As a visitor, you may find yourself sitting on the floor rather that in a chair at a table. It may be necessary for you to arrive with a gift and to know how to receive a gift gracefully.
39 Successful Communication Tips for Successful Communication Act appropriately in business meetings. Understand the culture of the region you are visiting. Understand that nonverbal communication involves sending messages without words through time, silence, personal space, and body and eye contact. Follow proper business protocols.
40 3.2 1.What are the cultural factors that affect nonverbal communication? numbers, emblems, personal appearance and dress, colors, smells, and foods
41 3.2 2.What are the basic differences in nonverbal methods of communication across cultures? There are differences in terms of time, silence, personal space, and body and eye contact. Differences also are found in major holidays, giving and receiving gifts, and business meetings and entertainment.
42 3.2 3.How can an expatriate manager adapt to the business behaviors needed to succeed in an international relationship? The expatriate manager should learn and understand mayor business protocols and the proper steps for receiving visitors as well as business entertainment customs in other cultures.