Presentation on theme: "IEC 62271-100 Short-circuit current making and breaking tests Taiwan-European HVAC apparatuses Accreditation and Certification forum Harethe El Ouadhane."— Presentation transcript:
IEC Short-circuit current making and breaking tests Taiwan-European HVAC apparatuses Accreditation and Certification forum Harethe El Ouadhane IEC Expert: Member of MT14 of IEC Testing, design & calculation / MVSG & MVCB Expert for internal arc, making, breaking and STC
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests 2 Content 1.Requirements of IEC Basic short-circuit test duties 3.Single-phase fault tests 4.Double-earth fault tests 5.Technology of vacuum interrupters 6.Extension of the validity of test results and derivations 7.Conclusion
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests 3 1. Requirements of IEC Mandatory Test Circuit-breakers shall be capable of making and breaking all short-circuit currents, symmetrical and asymmetrical, up to and including the rated short- circuit breaking currents: This is demonstrated, when the circuit-breakers make and break the specified three-phase symmetrical and asymmetrical currents between 10% (T10) and 100% (T100) of the rated short-circuit breaking current at rated voltage. In addition Circuit-breakers shall be capable of clearing single-phase short-circuit currents which may occur in two different cases: – in effectively earthed neutral systems in case of single-phase faults or, – in non-effectively earthed neutral systems in case of double earth faults, i.e. earth faults on two different phases, one of which occurs on one side of the circuit-breaker and the other one on the other side.
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests 4 2. Basic short-circuit test duties Number of test specimen a unique test specimen should be used. Where required, maintenance is allowed and should be performed as permitted, between each individual test- duty in the case of short-circuit tests The manufacturer shall provide a statement to the testing laboratory of those parts that may be renewed during the tests. No-load test Before commencing making and breaking tests, no-load operations and no- load operating sequences (O, CO and O – t – CO) shall be made and details of the operating characteristics of the circuit-breaker recorded. Details such as closing time and opening time shall be recorded.
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests 5 2. Basic short-circuit test duties Behavior of circuit-breaker during tests During making and breaking tests, the circuit-breaker shall not – show signs of distress; – show harmful interaction between poles and to earth; – show harmful interaction with adjacent laboratory equipment; – exhibit behavior which could endanger an operator. NSDDs may occur during the recovery voltage period following a breaking operation Condition after a short-circuit test-duty After each short-circuit test-duty, the circuit-breaker shall be capable of making and breaking its rated normal current at the rated voltage, although its short-circuit making and breaking performance may be impaired.
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests 6 2. Basic short-circuit test duties Frequency Circuit-breakers shall be tested at rated frequency with a tolerance of ±8 %. However, for convenience of testing, some deviations from the above tolerance are allowable; for example, when circuit-breakers rated at 50 Hz are tested at 60 Hz and vice versa, care should be exercised in the interpretation of the results, taking into account all significant facts such as the type of the circuit-breaker and the type of test performed.
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests 7 2. Basic short-circuit test duties There are several requirements for the test circuit, test parameters and CB arrangements in order to simulate the possible worst case switching of the CB in real system. In general, closing against the highest making current, opening with various arcing times and recovery voltages, under the unfavourable mechanical operating conditions. The main ones are among others related to: Operating sequence O – CO – CO, with or without auto-reclosing T10, T30, T60, T100s & only O for T100a, SPF & DEF Factors for recovery voltages; first-pole-to-clear (neutral earthing) and amplitude factor (based on CIGRE), RRRV Arcing time and arcing window: Depending on the point of mechanical contact separation, interruption with minimum, medium and maximum arcing time
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests 8 2. Basic short-circuit test duties
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests 9 2. Basic short-circuit test duties
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests Single-phase tests Mandatory in effectively earth neutral systems. The main requirements for the test duty are related to: Breaking of the rated symmetrical short-circuit current with the maximum arcing time and with the recovery voltage based on phase-to-earth voltage Outer pole under test to simulate the maximum stress in the coupling mechanism
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests Double-earth fault Mandatory in non-effectively earth neutral systems. The main requirements for the test duty are related to: Breaking of the 87% of the rated symmetrical short-circuit current with the maximum arcing time and with the recovery voltage based on phase-to-phase voltage
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests Technology of Vacuum Interrupters History: 1896: First analysis of electrical field breakdown in vacuum (theoretical 6MV per 1mm) 1930: Quantum mechanics describes the field emission in vacuum 1960: First commercial VI in the market 2012: Over 75% all MV CB uses VI to switch the current VIs are currently commercially available up to 145kV. Prototypes of multiple switching units at 220kV or higher voltages are under development. Development of VIs is continuing towards higher voltages and higher short-circuit currents with the employment of advanced arc control systems.
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests Technology of Vacuum Interrupters Main feature of VI technology: High number of operations: Up to 100 of rated short-circuit interruptions and up to of rated current interruptions without any maintenance Compact & Lightweight and High Reliability with extremely low failure rate Contact materials with low welding tendency and low chopping current Contact design with arc control for high interrupting capacity and for withstanding fast recovery voltages
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests Extension of the validity of test results Who? - Manufacturer Experts / Expert teams - Third party Experts What? - Yes it can be extended / it may be extended - No, it can not be extended Responsibility only manufacturer Is not the task of test labs or accreditation institutes
Schneider Electric – IEC : Chapter 6 Type tests Conclusion The design and technology of high-voltage circuit-breakers is continuously developing and will continue also in the future. Type tests qualify the type of product series while the routine tests ensure that the manufactured series are always in accordance with the type tested sample Circuit-breakers qualified according to the IEC are best suited for switching of short-circuit currents. They are able to switch currents with high asymmetry and fast rising TRVs without any maintenance throughout the lifetime Most of the failures are due to inappropriate human behaviors either during the project management phase (wrong product definition) or during operations (installation, operation, maintenance, etc.) Thus, considering additional regulation should not bring more safety. On the other side deregulating a proven standard will reduce the safety level