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 starter activity How powerful is the UK PM? What limits his/her powers.

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Presentation on theme: " starter activity How powerful is the UK PM? What limits his/her powers."— Presentation transcript:

1  starter activity How powerful is the UK PM? What limits his/her powers

2 Powers of UK PM Set legislative agenda Set legislative agenda Decide date of general election Decide date of general election Make powerful nominations, e.g. cabinet, Lords, awards Make powerful nominations, e.g. cabinet, Lords, awards Member of European Council Member of European Council Declare war Declare war Negotiate important treaties, e.g. Lisbon Treaty Negotiate important treaties, e.g. Lisbon Treaty Primus inter pares Primus inter pares Prominent figure on world stage Prominent figure on world stage

3 Limitations Vote of no confidence Vote of no confidence Backbench committees e.g Committee, Public Liaison Committee Backbench committees e.g Committee, Public Liaison Committee Media makes PMs more accountable Media makes PMs more accountable Conventions, e.g. ministerial or cabinet responsibility Conventions, e.g. ministerial or cabinet responsibility Electorate – most PMs are sitting MPs, their party needs to succeed in elections Electorate – most PMs are sitting MPs, their party needs to succeed in elections Establishment – e.g. senior members of military, Lords, ‘men in grey suits’ Establishment – e.g. senior members of military, Lords, ‘men in grey suits’ Rule of law Rule of law Europe – European Court of Justice & EU law Europe – European Court of Justice & EU law Head of government BUT not head of state or C-in-C Head of government BUT not head of state or C-in-C

4 How powerful is the US president? TBAT compare the powers of presidents with those of PMs To identify the key formal powers of presidents & assess the extent to which recent presidents have used those powers  LOs  Key words: Founding Fathers executive checks and balances OMB EXOP veto

5  Your task Read p and note down what were the original powers of US presidents Read p and note down what were the original powers of US presidents Highlight in one colour evidence to suggest the president powerful and evidence to suggest his powers are limited in another Highlight in one colour evidence to suggest the president powerful and evidence to suggest his powers are limited in another  Re-read p & p and briefly list the key checks and balances imposed on the president. Which is the most powerful one?  Re-read p & p and briefly list the key checks and balances imposed on the president. Which is the most powerful one?

6 You will be given a series of powers of the president. Try to convince your classmates that yours is the most important  What other powers not on the cards would you include?

7  Your task Read p and create a spider diagram, recording the key functions of a president. Read p and create a spider diagram, recording the key functions of a president. Propose legislation Propose legislation Submit the annual budget Submit the annual budget Sign & veto legislation Sign & veto legislation Nominate executive officials Nominate executive officials Nominate federal judges Nominate federal judges C-in-C of armed forces C-in-C of armed forces Negotiate treaties Negotiate treaties Pardon Pardon Explain which is the most important and which had the fewest checks and balances Explain which is the most important and which had the fewest checks and balances

8 Propose of legislation State of the Union address – delivered to Congress in person since 1913 State of the Union address – delivered to Congress in person since 1913 Power to propose legislation at any time, e.g. press conferences, foreign visits Power to propose legislation at any time, e.g. press conferences, foreign visits

9 Submit the annual budget Office of Management & Budget (OMB) draws up annual budget Office of Management & Budget (OMB) draws up annual budget President submits bill to Congress President submits bill to Congress Length, bargaining required, e.g. fiscal cliff negotiations (2012) Length, bargaining required, e.g. fiscal cliff negotiations (2012)

10 Sign legislation Signs bills into legislation (similar to Royal Assent) Signs bills into legislation (similar to Royal Assent) Opportunity for ceremony if president wishes to take some credit Opportunity for ceremony if president wishes to take some credit Other politicians may be present, e.g Educ Reform Act, Senator Edward Kennedy & Republican congressmen attended Other politicians may be present, e.g Educ Reform Act, Senator Edward Kennedy & Republican congressmen attended

11 Barack Obama used 22 pens to sign the Health Care Bill (2010) – 20 to give away & 2 for the archives.

12 Chief executive In charge of the executive In charge of the executive Powers are delegated to individuals & departments as part of EXOP Powers are delegated to individuals & departments as part of EXOP “The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America’ Article II, US Constitution, 1787

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14 Nominate executive branch President can nominate whomsoever to the executive, as well as other posts, e.g. ambassadors President can nominate whomsoever to the executive, as well as other posts, e.g. ambassadors Most important are 15 heads of executive departments, e.g. Treasury, State, Defence etc Most important are 15 heads of executive departments, e.g. Treasury, State, Defence etc

15 President Obama, Vice President Biden and Heads of the 15 Executive Departments as well as other Cabinet members

16 Nominate all federal judges All levels of federal judiciary All levels of federal judiciary Appointments are for life Appointments are for life Issues of ‘echo chamber’ Issues of ‘echo chamber’

17 Commander-in-chief Especially important since WWII, e.g. Eisenhower during Cold War, Johnson during Vietnam, Reagan during Cold War Especially important since WWII, e.g. Eisenhower during Cold War, Johnson during Vietnam, Reagan during Cold War Less important in post-Cold War era Less important in post-Cold War era Congress maintains power to declare war Congress maintains power to declare war President asks Congress to authorise use of troops President asks Congress to authorise use of troops

18 Negotiate treaties Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (Reagan) Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (Reagan) President Obama negotiated START with Russia in 2010 President Obama negotiated START with Russia in 2010

19 Pardon Clinton issued 140 pardons including to party donors such as Marc Rich (below) who had been indicted for tax evasion Clinton issued 140 pardons including to party donors such as Marc Rich (below) who had been indicted for tax evasion

20  Your task You will each be given a different president to research. Your challenge is to find evidence from their time as president of them controversially exercising different powers or You will each be given a different president to research. Your challenge is to find evidence from their time as president of them controversially exercising different powers or Produce a short presentation & handout for your class Produce a short presentation & handout for your class The winning team will have to prove that their president was one the one most steeped in controversy! The winning team will have to prove that their president was one the one most steeped in controversy!

21 Presidents Bush Jr Bush Jr Clinton Clinton Bush Sr Bush Sr Reagan Reagan Ford Ford Nixon Nixon Johnson Johnson Kennedy Kennedy

22 How powerful is the US president? TBAT compare the powers of presidents with those of PMs To identify the key formal powers of presidents & assess the extent to which recent presidents have used those powers  LOs  Key words: Founding Fathers executive checks and balances OMB EXOP veto


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