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ELECTING A PRESIDENT 2004 Presented by Ms. Reynolds.

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1 ELECTING A PRESIDENT 2004 Presented by Ms. Reynolds

2 PRESIDENTIAL REQUIREMENTS  NATURAL BORN CITIZEN Must be born in the United States or born to a U.S. citizen anywhere in the world  35 YEARS OF AGE  14 YEAR RESIDENCY Must be living in the United States for 14 years

3 ELECTION PROCESS  GET NOMINATED Presidential candidate is nominated by a Nominating Convention Convention meets about three months before the election Delegates from all the states assemble and nominate a President/Vice President ticket Delegates decide on a party platform The issues the president will represent in the election

4 ELECTION PROCESS  GO TO THE PEOPLE The candidates make speeches, appear at rallies, and present the party platform and their views on current issues On the first Tuesday in November the voters go to the polls to vote for electors The electors then vote for the candidates

5 ELECTION PROCESS  GATHER ELECTORAL VOTES The group of electors vote for the President Each elector has one electoral vote Each state has a number of electors equal to the number of their Senators and Representatives Known as the Electoral College

6 ELECTORAL COLLEGE  A system established by the U.S. Constitution The popular vote (votes by the citizens) is cast in November In each state, except Maine and Nebraska, the candidate who receives the most popular votes wins all of the state’s electoral votes Rule is called “Winner-take-all” Electors cast their votes in December

7 ELECTORAL COLLEGE  A candidate can win the nation’s popular vote but still lose the Electoral College!  In most states, if one candidate gets more popular votes than the other candidates, he or she gets all of that state’s electoral votes  In 2000, Al Gore won the popular vote, but lost the electoral vote to George W. Bush  The candidate that wins at least 270 out of 538 electoral votes is declared President

8 MAJORITY? PLURALITY  A candidate must receive a majority of votes (over 50%) to become President  If no one has a majority, the person with the most votes has a plurality, but is not President  The constitution includes a clause that guides the selection process in the event of a plurality.

9 MAJORITY? PLURALITY  If the Electoral College does not give any candidate the necessary majority, the House of Representatives chooses the President from among the top three candidates in electoral votes. Each state gets one vote and the President must be chosen by a majority of the states

10 MAJORITY? PLURALITY  This constitutional clause has been used only twice  In 1800, Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied with 69 electoral votes each and Jefferson became president  In 1824, Andrew Jackson led in electoral votes, but did not have a majority so the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams as President after Henry Clay gave him his support

11 PRESIDENTIAL POWERS AND LIMITATIONS  The President of the United States is one of the most powerful democratically elected officials in the world  His powers are stated in the Constitution and through the use of “checks and balances” his actions are always controlled and checked by the Legislative and/or Judicial branches.

12 PRESIDENTIAL POWERS AND LIMITATIONS  The President may not violate laws while he is in office. If he does the House of Representatives may bring impeachment charges against him. He would then be tried in the Senate and if two-thirds of the Senators vote to convict him he would be removed from office.

13 PRESIDENTIAL POWERS AND LIMITATIONS  CHIEF EXECUTOR  He enforces the Constitution and laws passed by Congress  Can issue executive orders  Appoints all government officials, including Cabinet officers, Supreme Court Justices, and others although his orders can be declared unconstitutional in the courts and his appointments must be approved by the Senate

14 PRESIDENTIAL POWERS AND LIMITATIONS  CHIEF LEGISLATOR  He can recall Congress into a special session  He may veto the bills passed by Congress or use his influence to get a bill passed or proposed  Congress can override the president’s veto by a two-thirds majority

15 PRESIDENTIAL POWERS AND LIMITATIONS  JUDICIAL POWERS  The president may grant pardons to most individuals  He has indirect control of the courts  He appoints all federal judges  All of his appointments must be approved by the Senate

16 PRESIDENTIAL POWERS AND LIMITATIONS  CHIEF AMBASSADOR  He determines the foreign policy of the nation, directs and negotiates treaties, and appoints other ambassadors and diplomats  These appointments must also be cleared by Congress  Treaties must be ratified by the Senate

17 PRESIDENTIAL POWERS AND LIMITATIONS CCOMMANDER IN CHIEF HHe maintains civilian control over the military HHe appoints top military commanders, gives them military advice, and has the power to discharge officers HHe can order the armed forces into action HHe cannot commit U.S. troops to international conflicts for more than 90 days without a formal declaration of war, a power reserved for Congress

18 BACKUP PLAN THE CONSTITUTION In case of death, resignation, or removal of the President, the Constitution states that he would be succeeded by the Vice President If there is a vacancy in the Presidency and the Vice Presidency, Speaker of the House of Representatives, then the President pro tempore of the Senate, and then the Cabinet members starting with the Secretary of State fills those positions

19 25 th AMENDMENT  This amendment was passed in 1967 and stated that in cases of Presidential disability, the Vice President would take office until the disability was resolved  If the Vice President becomes President, he could appoint a new Vice President, subject to approval by the Congress


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