Presentation on theme: "Introduction, approaches & methodology Isnani A. S. Suryono Workshop on Scientific Paper Writing Surabaya, 23-26 Oktober 2008 DP2M-DIKTI_PETRA."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction, approaches & methodology Isnani A. S. Suryono Workshop on Scientific Paper Writing Surabaya, 23-26 Oktober 2008 DP2M-DIKTI_PETRA
Structure of a scientific paper Basic structure IMRAD: Introduction (what question was asked?) Methodology (How was it studied?) Results(What was found?) And Discussion(What do the findings mean?)
Introduction Heart of the paper! Whole idea on why we do a research (Back ground) What do we expect? Hypothesis & / objective of study should be summarized & written in concrete sentences, usually at the last paragraph.. Concise, Clear, Logic & Systematic, Interesting!
Introduction: Consisting of 2 paragraphs (usually not longer than 1 page): 1.Main reasons for doing the research (questions that need to be answered), explain it in a logical sequence, relevant with selected literature. 2.A summary on how we plan to do it (research design) and research hypothesis, objectives, what we expect the outcome will be.
Methodology Several forms: Materials & Methods Some journals separated Materials from Methods Now most journals include materials/subject of research under the caption: methodology / methods
Methods Important part of the manuscript, since is the most common cause of rejection. Main purposes: to describe, sometimes to defend the experimental design, provide details sufficient enough for others to repeat the study, Should be clear, detailed, but concise. Standard methods appropriate reference.
Modification of standard Methods Whenever “modifications” of published methods are used, authors should : – Give complete details of any new methods used. – Give the precision of the measurements undertaken. – Use statistical analysis sensibly. Help of a statistician needed at the planning stage of study, to improve the design & analysis.
References 1.Hall GH. Structure of a scientific paper. In: Hall GH, ed. How to write a paper. London: BMJ, 1994: p. 1-3. 2.Smith R. Introduction. In: Hall GH, ed. How to write a paper. London: BMJ, 1994: p. 6-13 3.Drummond G B. Methods. In: Hall GH, ed. How to write a paper. London: BMJ, 1994: p.15-8 4.Sastroasmoro S. Penulisan makalah ilmiah untuk jurnal: Sistematika dan Format Umum. Pada Workshop on medical report writing. The Second annual Jakarta International Epidemiology Course for Clinicians. FKUI & UICC. Jakarta: 25 Nov-6 Des. 1996 5.Tjokronegoro A. Sistematika dan cara membuat bagian-bagian makalah ilmiah, terutama penelitian. Pada loka-karya Teknik Penulisan Artikel Ilmiah. Badan LitBangKes. Jakarta: 6-10 Des. 1999. h. 21-23