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Introduction, approaches & methodology Isnani A. S. Suryono Workshop on Scientific Paper Writing Surabaya, 23-26 Oktober 2008 DP2M-DIKTI_PETRA.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction, approaches & methodology Isnani A. S. Suryono Workshop on Scientific Paper Writing Surabaya, 23-26 Oktober 2008 DP2M-DIKTI_PETRA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction, approaches & methodology Isnani A. S. Suryono Workshop on Scientific Paper Writing Surabaya, Oktober 2008 DP2M-DIKTI_PETRA

2 Structure of a scientific paper Basic structure  IMRAD: Introduction (what question was asked?) Methodology (How was it studied?) Results(What was found?) And Discussion(What do the findings mean?)

3 Introduction Heart of the paper! Whole idea on why we do a research (Back ground) What do we expect?  Hypothesis & / objective of study should be summarized & written in concrete sentences, usually at the last paragraph.. Concise, Clear, Logic & Systematic, Interesting!

4 Introduction: Consisting of 2 paragraphs (usually not longer than 1 page): 1.Main reasons for doing the research (questions that need to be answered), explain it in a logical sequence, relevant with selected literature. 2.A summary on how we plan to do it (research design) and research hypothesis, objectives, what we expect the outcome will be.

5 Approaches (?) Analytic approaches: Qualitative Quantitative

6 Methodology Several forms: Materials & Methods Some journals separated Materials from Methods Now most journals include materials/subject of research under the caption: methodology / methods

7 Methods Important part of the manuscript, since is the most common cause of rejection. Main purposes: to describe, sometimes to defend the experimental design, provide details sufficient enough for others to repeat the study, Should be clear, detailed, but concise. Standard methods  appropriate reference.

8 Modification of standard Methods Whenever “modifications” of published methods are used, authors should : – Give complete details of any new methods used. – Give the precision of the measurements undertaken. – Use statistical analysis sensibly. Help of a statistician needed at the planning stage of study, to improve the design & analysis.

9 References 1.Hall GH. Structure of a scientific paper. In: Hall GH, ed. How to write a paper. London: BMJ, 1994: p Smith R. Introduction. In: Hall GH, ed. How to write a paper. London: BMJ, 1994: p Drummond G B. Methods. In: Hall GH, ed. How to write a paper. London: BMJ, 1994: p Sastroasmoro S. Penulisan makalah ilmiah untuk jurnal: Sistematika dan Format Umum. Pada Workshop on medical report writing. The Second annual Jakarta International Epidemiology Course for Clinicians. FKUI & UICC. Jakarta: 25 Nov-6 Des Tjokronegoro A. Sistematika dan cara membuat bagian-bagian makalah ilmiah, terutama penelitian. Pada loka-karya Teknik Penulisan Artikel Ilmiah. Badan LitBangKes. Jakarta: 6-10 Des h


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