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Isnani A. S. Suryono Penulisan Artikel Ilmiah Internasional- DP2M-DIKTI, 23 Oktober 2009, Makassar.

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Presentation on theme: "Isnani A. S. Suryono Penulisan Artikel Ilmiah Internasional- DP2M-DIKTI, 23 Oktober 2009, Makassar."— Presentation transcript:

1 Isnani A. S. Suryono Penulisan Artikel Ilmiah Internasional- DP2M-DIKTI, 23 Oktober 2009, Makassar

2 Basic structure  IMRAD:  Introduction (what question was asked?)  Methods (How was it studied?)  Results(What was found?)  And  Discussion(What do the findings mean?) 224/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

3 24/08/20143  Lindsay: 5-10% of  pages  I dari I M R A D  Answers  Why did you start? 3 ◦ What do I have to say? ◦ Is it worth saying it? ◦ What is the right format for the message? ◦ What is the audience for the message? ◦ What is the right journal for the message? DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

4 BEGIN WITH THUNDER!  Write a strong introductory paragraph  Right to the essence of the argument  Opening sentences should be “reader- grabbers”  ◦ A provocative question ◦ A new perspective ◦ A good quotation 24/08/20144DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

5 several studies have shown that xxxx (ref: 1-7) and several others have shown that it does not (ref: 8-14). We report further, some of our result support ref. 1-7 & some of them are in accordance with 8-14.. 24/08/20145DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

6 Two previous studies have reported that xxxxx. These studies were small and uncontrolled, and used only crude measurements of yyyy, and did not follow up. We report a larger, controlled study, with detailed measurements of yyyy and with.... years follow up. 3 24/08/20146DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

7 REFER& DEFINE BACKGROUND INFO  Start with general, yet concise description of the problem. Refer to previous work that supports your assessment of the problem.  Define primary subject of paper. Define any new, unusual, or vague term used in the title or introduction. [eg: “high risk”, “severe X”, gold standard etc] 24/08/20147DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

8  You may think definitions are not necessary because colleagues will understand.  Today, many reviewers are statisticians & others outside your subspecialty who may not understand your terminology.  Defining unfamiliar terms makes your study easier to understand & should improve the ratings of your paper. 24/08/20148DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

9  Explain why your research question is ◦ Important ◦ Interesting, or ◦ Controversial  Do not include information available in textbooks..  Include only: most relevant & significant points.. (Jangan pakai terlalu banyak) 24/08/20149DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

10  If your sample is small/ your do not have ideal control group  strenghten it by using a few well-selected findings from published studies.  Position your study, does your study have: ◦ A larger sample size? ◦ Better control of confounding factors? ◦ Longer follow up? ◦ More recent data? ◦ More accurate measurements?  Summarize concisely, elaborate in the Discussion. 24/08/201410DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

11  State the purpose of your study clearly..  The specific aim & hypothesis should be easy to find & understand  Be sure that the reasoning in your paper follows a straight line: ◦ from the purpose (in the Introduction) to ◦ the conclusion (at the end of the Discussion) 24/08/201411DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

12  Authors are often not clear about what they want to say..  Straying from the hypothesis or the objective of the analysis. [4]  Authors regularly choose the wrong format..  Not clear about the audience (Academician? Practitioners? Researchers? Specialists? Generalists?) 1224/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

13  You must present a great deal of important information in just a few words! How few?  Check recently published Introductions in the target journal  make yours slightly less than, or equal to the average length.. 24/08/201413DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

14  Read the “Instructions to authors” of the journal you are writing for!! 1424/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

15  “To write an effective introduction you must know your audience, keep it short, tell readers why you have done the study and explain why it’s important, convince them that it is better than what has gone before, and try as hard as you can to hook them in the first line” 1524/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

16 24/08/201416  Lindsay: Methods (& Results) 40-60% of  pages.  M  I M R A D  Answers: What did you do?  Most important part of the manuscript, since is the most common cause of rejection! DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

17 Several styles  target journal  Materials & Methods  Subjects & Methods  Some journals separated Materials from Methods  Now most journals include materials/subject of research under the caption: Methods Better to write this part in as much detail as possible before the study has started. 5 1724/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

18  Important part of the manuscript, since is the most common cause of rejection.  Main purposes: to describe, sometimes to defend the experimental design, provide sufficient details, enough for others to repeat the study,  Standard methods  just give the appropriate reference. 1824/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

19  Whenever “modifications” of standard methods are used, authors should : ◦ Give complete details of any new methods used. ◦ Give the precision of the measurements undertaken. ◦ Use statistical analysis sensibly.  Help of a statistician needed at the planning stage of study. 1924/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

20 How the study was designed :  Keep the description brief  Inform when the study was conducted & where?  Population & sample, sampling method  Say how randomisation was done  Use names to identify parts of a study sequence 2024/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

21 How the study was carried out:  Describe recruitment (criteria of inclusion )  Give reasons for excluding subjects  Consider mentioning ethical features  Give accurate details of materials  Give exact drug dosages  Give exact form of treatment & accesible details of unusual apparatus 2124/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

22 How the data was analysed:  Use a p value to disprove the null hypothesis  Give an estimation of the power of the study (the likelihood of a false negative– the  error)  Give the exact tests used for statistical analysis 2224/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

23  Does text describe questions asked?  What was being tested?  How trustworthy the measurements of the variables would be?  Were these trustworthy measurements recorded, analysed, & interpreted correctly?  Would a suitably qualified reader be able to repeat the experiment in the same way? 2324/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

24 1. Hall GH. Structure of a scientific paper. In: Hall GH, ed. How to write a paper. London: BMJ, 1994: p. 1-3. 2. Sastroasmoro S. Penulisan makalah ilmiah untuk jurnal: Sistematika dan Format Umum. Pada Workshop on medical report writing. The Second annual Jakarta International Epidemiology Course for Clinicians. FKUI & UICC. Jakarta: 25 Nov-6 Des. 1996 3. Smith R. Introduction. In: Hall GH, ed. How to write a paper. London: BMJ, 1994: p. 6-13 4. Byrne DW. Introduction. In: Publishing your medical research paper. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1998:p.101-4 5. Drummond G B. Methods. In: Hall GH, ed. How to write a paper. London: BMJ, 1994: p.15-8 6. Lindsay D. Penuntun Penulisan Ilmiah. A guide to Scientific Writing. Jakarta: UIP; 1986 2424/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

25  Mohon umpan balik  Mohon usulan bahan loka-karya tambahan yang dirasa perlu  Apakah perlu informasi tambahan misalkan mengenai PLAGIARISME? 2524/08/2014DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

26 1. Penulisan dan penyuntingan artikel ilmiah biomedik, (Penulis ke-2) bersama Prof. Dr. drg. Krisnowati Djojosoedarsono, dari FKG UnAir. Penerbit UIP, Juni 2007. 2. Bab IV, Plagiarisme, pada buku: Panduan Penulisan Artikel Ilmiah bagi Klinisi, Editor: Prof. Dr. Ali Baziad SpOG(K) & Dr. dr. Ocvyanti, SpOG(K), Penerbit YBP Sarwono Prawirohardjo, Juni 2008. 3. Buku Penuntun Praktikum Histologi, bersama Staf Pengajar Histologi FKUI. Penerbit: PT ”Dian Rakyat” (2003), edisi II [in press] Des 2009. 24/08/201426DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

27  Post-menopausal osteoporosis, the process, prevention and therapy. Majalah Kedokteran Indonesia (MKI). 2000. (Penulis 2)  Language barrier, funding, communication and time management problems in the Medical Journal of Indonesia, 1995-2001. Med J Indones. (MJI) Vol. 10 (4), Oct-Dec. 2001. (Penulis 1)  Comparison of various procedures in the processing of binucleated lymphocytes on to glass slide to detect chromosomal breakage. Med J Indones. (MJI). Vol. 12 (1), Jan-Mar. 2003. (Penulis 2) 24/08/201427DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

28  Increased chromosomal breakage in lymphocytes of ovarian cancer patients. International Med J (IMJ) Japan. Vol 10 (4), Dec. 2003. (Penulis 3)  Testing the simple micronucleus test to detect chromosomal breakage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patiets receiving chemotherapy. International Med J (IMJ). Vol 12 (3), Sept. 2005. (Penulis 2)  Sensitivity and specificity of micronucleus test in hypotonic swollen mononuclear leucocytes compared to micronucleus test in binucleated lymphocytes to assess chromosomal breaks. Analytical and Quantitative Cytology and Histology (AQCH). USA. Vol. 28 (3), June. 2006. (Penulis 2) 24/08/201428DP2M-DIKTI/IAS/GM

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