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Phrases & Clauses. What is a phrase? A group of words, which makes sense, but not complete sense, is called a Phrase. It is a group of related words without.

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Presentation on theme: "Phrases & Clauses. What is a phrase? A group of words, which makes sense, but not complete sense, is called a Phrase. It is a group of related words without."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phrases & Clauses

2 What is a phrase? A group of words, which makes sense, but not complete sense, is called a Phrase. It is a group of related words without a subject and a finite verb. A finite verb must have a tense and agree with its subject in number and person.

3 Nonfinite Verbs In English, there are four nonfinite verbs (i.e. they have no tense and take no subject). Usually they're referred to as verbals: The infinitive: Simple Infinitive: to eat Continuous Infinitive: to be eating Perfect Infinitive: to have eaten The gerund: Simple gerund: eating Perfect Gerund: having eaten The present participle: eating The past participle: eaten

4 Words/group of words in italics are phrases in examples below: 1) The sun rises in the east. 2) Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall. 3) She wore a hat with blue trimming. 4) The accident on the bridge was not serious. 5) The girl with red hair is an artist. 6) Sara took a long leave. 7) Holding the toy, the child slept

5 Types of phrases Adjective Phrases. Adverb Phrases. Noun Phrases. Prepositional Phrases.

6 Adjective phrases 1. The manger was of great wealth. 2. He lives in a house built of stone. 3. I like to see a face with a smile on it. Each group of the underlined words qualifies a noun just as an adjective does. It therefore does the work of an adjective and is called an Adjective Phrase.

7 Exercise 1 Pick out the Adjective Phrases, in the following sentences. 1. Wild beasts in small cages are a sorry sight. 2. He tells a tale with the ring of truth in it. 3. A friend in need is a friend indeed. 4. A stitch in time saves nine. 5. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

8 Answers 1 1. Wild beasts in small cages are a sorry sight. 2. He tells a tale with the ring of truth in it. 3. A friend in need is a friend indeed. 4. A stitch in time saves nine. 5. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

9 Adverb Phrases 1. She ran with great speed. 2. He is coming at this moment. 3. You can buy it in all places. Each group of the underlined words qualifies a verb just as an adverb does. It therefore does the work of an adverb and is called an Adverb Phrase.

10 Exercise 2 Pick out the Adverb Phrases, in the following sentences. 1. They lived in the middle of a great wood. 2. Nothing can live on the moon. 3. Come into the garden, Sami. 4. Three fishermen went sailing over the sea. 5. They fought to the last man.

11 Answers 2 1. They lived in the middle of a great wood. 2. Nothing can live on the moon. 3. Come into the garden, Sami. 4. Three fishermen went sailing over the sea. 5. They fought to the last man.

12 Noun Phrases 1. He wants to go home. 2. I tried to get the sum right. 3. To win a prize is my ambition. Each group of the underlined words is a noun (a subject or an object). It is therefore a Noun Phrase.

13 Exercise 3 Pick out the Noun Phrases, in the following sentences. 1. His father wished to speak to the headmaster. 2. I dislike to punish my students. 3. He denies stealing the money. 4. Have you ever tried climbing a mountain? 5. Horses prefer living in dark stables.

14 Answers 3 1. His father wished to speak to the headmaster. 2. I dislike to punish my students. 3. He denies stealing the money. 4. Have you ever tried climbing a mountain? 5. Horses prefer living in dark stables.

15 Prepositional Phrases At the minimum, a prepositional phrase will begin with a preposition end with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, the "object" of the preposition. The object of the preposition will often have one or more modifiers to describe it.

16 Here are some examples of the most basic prepositional phrase: At home At = preposition; home = noun. In time In = preposition; time = noun. From Sue From = preposition; Sue = noun. With me With = preposition; me = pronoun. By singing By = preposition; singing = gerund.

17 About what we need About = preposition; what we need = noun clause. Most prepositional phrases are longer, like these: From my grandmother From = preposition; my = modifier; grandmother = noun. Under the warm blanket Under = preposition; the, warm = modifiers; blanket = noun.

18 A prepositional phrase will function as an adjective or adverb. As an adjective, the prepositional phrase will answer the question Which one? Read these examples: The book on the bathroom floor is swollen from shower steam. Which book? The one on the bathroom floor! The sweet potatoes in the vegetable bin are green with mold. Which sweet potatoes? The ones forgotten in the vegetable bin!

19 As an adverb, a prepositional phrase will answer questions such as How? When? or Where? Freddy is stiff from yesterday's long football practice. How did Freddy get stiff? From yesterday's long football practice! Before class, Josh begged his friends for a pencil. When did Josh do his begging? Before class! Feeling hungry, we tried the new spicy food at the Grand Hotel. Where did we eat the spicy food? At the Grand Hotel!

20 What is a clause? A group of words forms part of a sentence, and contains a subject and a predicate is called a clause as in: He has a chain which is made of gold. Subject (which) Predicate (is made of gold)

21 Types of clauses 1. Adverb clauses. 2. Adjective clauses. 3. Noun clauses.

22 Adverb Clauses 1. You may sit wherever you like. 2. He behaves as one might expect him to do. 3. If you eat too much, you will be ill. Each group of the underlined words has a Subject and a Predicate of its own and does the work of an Adverb. It's therefore an Adverb Claus

23 Exercise 1 Pick out the Adverb Clauses in the following sentences. 1. Because you have done this I shall punish you. 2. As he was not there, I spoke to his brother. 3. He finished first though he began late. 4. Will you wait till I return? 5. Just as he entered the room the clock struck.

24 Answers 1 1. Because you have done this I shall punish you. 2. As he was not there, I spoke to his brother. 3. He finished first though he began late. 4. Will you wait till I return? 5. Just as he entered the room the clock struck.

25 Adjective Clauses 1. Sue had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow. 2. The letter brought money which was badly needed. 3. They never fail who die in a great cause. Each group of the underlined words has a Subject and a Predicate of its own and does the work of an Adjective. It's therefore an Adjective Clause.

26 Exercise 2 Pick out the Adjective Clauses in the following sentences. 1. The house that I live in belongs to my father. 2. I have a little shadow which goes in and out with me. 3. The dog that bites doesn't bark. 4. He tells a tale that sounds untrue. 5. It's an ill wind that blows nobody any good.

27 Answers 1. The house that I live in belongs to my father. 2. I have a little shadow which goes in and out with me. 3. The dog that bites doesn't bark. 4. He tells a tale that sounds untrue. 5. It's an ill wind that blows nobody any good.

28 Noun Clauses 1. I expect that I shall get a prize. 2. That you should say this is very strange. Each group of the underlined words has a subject and a predicate of its own. It is therefore a clause. This clause is the object of the first sentence and the subject of the second sentence so it does the work of a Noun and called a Noun Clause.

29 Pick out the Noun Clauses in the following sentences. 1. I often wonder how you are getting on. 2. I fear that I shall fail. 3. That you have come pleases me. 4. He replied that he would come. 5. I thought that it would be a fine day

30 Answers 1. I often wonder how you are getting on. 2. I fear that I shall fail. 3. That you have come pleases me. 4. He replied that he would come. 5. I thought that it would be a fine day

31 Exercise: Tick the box opposite to each group of the underlined words according to the right classification. N/CAdj /C Adv /C N/p h Adj /ph Adv /ph Sentences He says that he met your brother.1. I have forgotten how to play this game.2. A man without an enemy is a man with few friends.3. He admitted that he wrote the letter.4. It grieved me to hear your illness.5. Before I die I hope to visit Mecca.6. Do not talk like that.7. I was reading a book which I had read before.8. This is a matter of no importance.9. Can a man live whose soul is dead?10

32 Answers NCAdj /C Adv /C N/p h Adj /ph Adv /ph Sentences xHe says that he met your brother.1 xI have forgotten how to play this game.2 xA man without an enemy is a man with few friends.3 xHe admitted that he wrote the letter.4 xIt grieved me to hear your illness.5 xBefore I die I hope to visit Mecca.6 xDo not talk like that.7 xI was reading a book which I had read before.8 xThis is a matter of no importance.9 xCan a man live whose soul is dead?10


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