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Mesopotamia The Cradle of Civilization. Land Between the Rivers  Where is Mesopotamia located?

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Presentation on theme: "Mesopotamia The Cradle of Civilization. Land Between the Rivers  Where is Mesopotamia located?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mesopotamia The Cradle of Civilization

2 Land Between the Rivers  Where is Mesopotamia located?

3 A Fertile Valley  Known as the Fertile Crescent  Ideal for farming  Land was rich in edible plants – fruit, wheat, and barley  Fish and birds were plentiful  Pigs, sheep, and goats lived in wild  Known as the Fertile Crescent  Ideal for farming  Land was rich in edible plants – fruit, wheat, and barley  Fish and birds were plentiful  Pigs, sheep, and goats lived in wild

4  Why was it beneficial to be surrounded by mountains and desert in developing a civilization?

5  Activity:  Locate various cities, rivers, places on a map  Colour and label the places  Activity:  Locate various cities, rivers, places on a map  Colour and label the places

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7 Agriculture/Farming  Read pgs ; answer the following questions  What made this area an ideal place for farming?  How do the hot climate and the river systems work together to make this a fertile land?  How does silt create fertile soil?  What effect would being able to grow such an abundance of food have on the lives of the people?  How would people living in this area meet their needs?  Read pgs ; answer the following questions  What made this area an ideal place for farming?  How do the hot climate and the river systems work together to make this a fertile land?  How does silt create fertile soil?  What effect would being able to grow such an abundance of food have on the lives of the people?  How would people living in this area meet their needs?

8  Describe the climate of Mesopotamia.  How did the people of Mesopotamia overcome these hardships?  Read Pg  What did the Mesopotamians invent?  Describe the climate of Mesopotamia.  How did the people of Mesopotamia overcome these hardships?  Read Pg  What did the Mesopotamians invent?

9 Agriculture/Farming  The development of irrigation changed from being controlled by the environment to becoming capable of changing the environment.  The area did not supply enough rainfall for crops so irrigation was needed from the river  The development of irrigation changed from being controlled by the environment to becoming capable of changing the environment.  The area did not supply enough rainfall for crops so irrigation was needed from the river

10  Was the development of irrigation a positive or negative change? Was it both?  In what ways are we changing the environment today? Do these changes have both positive and negative aspects?  What can we do to continue growth without damaging the ecosystems around us?  Was the development of irrigation a positive or negative change? Was it both?  In what ways are we changing the environment today? Do these changes have both positive and negative aspects?  What can we do to continue growth without damaging the ecosystems around us?

11 Cause and Effect  Using page 71 as a reference, compose a cause and effect scenario with your desk partner.  Complete Think For Yourself, pg. 71  Using page 71 as a reference, compose a cause and effect scenario with your desk partner.  Complete Think For Yourself, pg. 71

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13 Government  Early societies were organized as villages  Villages were small, allowing everyone to make decisions  Overtime, Sumerian settlements grew into city-states  Early societies were organized as villages  Villages were small, allowing everyone to make decisions  Overtime, Sumerian settlements grew into city-states

14 Government  City-State - a self contained urban centre with its own ruler and government  Usually surrounded by a small dependent rural area, villages, or towns  City-State - a self contained urban centre with its own ruler and government  Usually surrounded by a small dependent rural area, villages, or towns

15 Government  By 3000 BCE, between Sumerian city-states had been founded  Uruk was one of the most powerful  Other important city-states were Lagash, Ur, Kish, and Nippur.  Conflicts between city-states were frequent, and stronger cities were able to conquer and control other cities  By 3000 BCE, between Sumerian city-states had been founded  Uruk was one of the most powerful  Other important city-states were Lagash, Ur, Kish, and Nippur.  Conflicts between city-states were frequent, and stronger cities were able to conquer and control other cities

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18 Government  First governments were ruled by priests  Had religious and government responsibilities  As conflicts between city-states increased, military leaders were chosen as rulers  These rulers became Kings  First governments were ruled by priests  Had religious and government responsibilities  As conflicts between city-states increased, military leaders were chosen as rulers  These rulers became Kings

19 Government  Kings…  Made and enforced the laws  Supervised the building of dams, temples, and canals  When rulers died, they were replaced by relatives creating a dynasty  Kings…  Made and enforced the laws  Supervised the building of dams, temples, and canals  When rulers died, they were replaced by relatives creating a dynasty

20 Government  Dynasty - a succession of rulers who are all related to a common ancestor  Sumerians believed that their cities had been created by deities, the lands and people belonged to these deities  Deities - gods and goddesses  Dynasty - a succession of rulers who are all related to a common ancestor  Sumerians believed that their cities had been created by deities, the lands and people belonged to these deities  Deities - gods and goddesses

21 Government  As cities grew in size, the responsibilities of the kings grew  Additional workers were hired to collect taxes and write and enforce laws  These people were part of the upper class  As cities grew in size, the responsibilities of the kings grew  Additional workers were hired to collect taxes and write and enforce laws  These people were part of the upper class

22  Imagine you are the second King of Mesopotamia…what rules would you make? What kind of buildings would you build?  Remember…you are living 2,500 years ago…no electricity…no power tools…no shopping malls…  Imagine you are the second King of Mesopotamia…what rules would you make? What kind of buildings would you build?  Remember…you are living 2,500 years ago…no electricity…no power tools…no shopping malls…

23 Review  What is a deity?  What is a dynasty?  What is a city-state?  What is a deity?  What is a dynasty?  What is a city-state?

24 Social Organization  Each city state has its own king or ruler  Societies consisted of upper, middle, and lower classes, and slaves  Men were head of the household and were responsible for arranging the education of his sons and the marriage of each daughter  Each city state has its own king or ruler  Societies consisted of upper, middle, and lower classes, and slaves  Men were head of the household and were responsible for arranging the education of his sons and the marriage of each daughter

25 Social Organization  Many households had slaves  Slaves were treated fairly because anyone could be a slave through bad luck, debt, or being captured in war.  Slaves could own property, become traders and craftspeople, and buy their freedom.  Many households had slaves  Slaves were treated fairly because anyone could be a slave through bad luck, debt, or being captured in war.  Slaves could own property, become traders and craftspeople, and buy their freedom.

26 Social Order King/Ruler Upper Class (nobles, priests, important government officials, wealthy landowners) Middle Class (trades people, craftspeople, soldiers, well-to-do land owners Lower Class (fishermen, farmers) Slaves King/Ruler Upper Class (nobles, priests, important government officials, wealthy landowners) Middle Class (trades people, craftspeople, soldiers, well-to-do land owners Lower Class (fishermen, farmers) Slaves

27 What They Ate  Sumerians ate grain; such as barley and wheat.  Barley was used for bread and cereal  Also ate vegetables; such as chickpeas, lentils, beans, onions, and lettuce  Raised cattle and goats for milk, cheese, butter, and yogurt  Raised sheep for wool  Only the wealthy ate meat  Sumerians ate grain; such as barley and wheat.  Barley was used for bread and cereal  Also ate vegetables; such as chickpeas, lentils, beans, onions, and lettuce  Raised cattle and goats for milk, cheese, butter, and yogurt  Raised sheep for wool  Only the wealthy ate meat

28 What They Wore  Clothing varied with the seasons and social status  During summer…  Wealthy women wore colourful (orange, yellow, green, and scarlet), long, loose-fitting gowns  Wealthy men wore short, wide skirts  Poor men and women wore simple knee-length tunics  During winter…  Everyone wore heavy clothes made of sheepskins and other animal skins  Cloaks made from wool  Clothing varied with the seasons and social status  During summer…  Wealthy women wore colourful (orange, yellow, green, and scarlet), long, loose-fitting gowns  Wealthy men wore short, wide skirts  Poor men and women wore simple knee-length tunics  During winter…  Everyone wore heavy clothes made of sheepskins and other animal skins  Cloaks made from wool

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31 What They Wore  Women wore makeup, such as lipstick and eye-shadow, and used perfumes and body oils  Both men and women wore jewellery  The wealthy wore jewellery made of gold  The poor wore jewellery made of coloured stones or shells  Women wore makeup, such as lipstick and eye-shadow, and used perfumes and body oils  Both men and women wore jewellery  The wealthy wore jewellery made of gold  The poor wore jewellery made of coloured stones or shells

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33  Activity:  Draw a picture of a Mesopotamian woman or man detailing what they wore and the kind of jewellery they used  Activity:  Draw a picture of a Mesopotamian woman or man detailing what they wore and the kind of jewellery they used

34 Housing  Most houses shared walls, like townhouses do today.  There was little wood and stone available for building materials. People built their homes of sun-dried brick. Doors led into a small family courtyard. Kids played in the courtyard.  Roofs were flat. Roofs provided a fourth living space. People cooked and slept on their roofs, when weather permitted.  Most houses shared walls, like townhouses do today.  There was little wood and stone available for building materials. People built their homes of sun-dried brick. Doors led into a small family courtyard. Kids played in the courtyard.  Roofs were flat. Roofs provided a fourth living space. People cooked and slept on their roofs, when weather permitted.

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37 Cities  Most cities were surrounded by a moat and a high, strong wall  Usually made from sun-dried mud bricks.  Gates into the cities were made from bronze  Most cities were surrounded by a moat and a high, strong wall  Usually made from sun-dried mud bricks.  Gates into the cities were made from bronze

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40 Cities  Inside the gates…  The city was a maze of narrow streets that led to the city centre.  The city centre, called the temenos, was the ceremonial area and included important buildings such as temples and the king’s palace.  Important buildings were made from kiln-dried bricks, rather than sun-dried brick  The closer a family lived to the city centre, the more important and the wealthier the family was.  Inside the gates…  The city was a maze of narrow streets that led to the city centre.  The city centre, called the temenos, was the ceremonial area and included important buildings such as temples and the king’s palace.  Important buildings were made from kiln-dried bricks, rather than sun-dried brick  The closer a family lived to the city centre, the more important and the wealthier the family was.

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44 Trade

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48 Development of Writing

49  People living in southern Mesopotamia developed one of the earliest writing systems in the world.  The system was developed so that information could be recorded.  This writing system began with pictures or signs drawn on clay tablets and has changed over many years.  People living in southern Mesopotamia developed one of the earliest writing systems in the world.  The system was developed so that information could be recorded.  This writing system began with pictures or signs drawn on clay tablets and has changed over many years.

50  Around 3100 B.C. people began to record amounts of different crops.  Barley was one of the most important crops in southern Mesopotamia and when it was first drawn it looked like this…  Around 3100 B.C. people began to record amounts of different crops.  Barley was one of the most important crops in southern Mesopotamia and when it was first drawn it looked like this…

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52  Cuneiform Name Tag

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