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Chapter 3 Key Terms Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia irrigate city-state

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Key Terms Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia irrigate city-state"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Key Terms Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia irrigate city-state
barter polytheism ziggurat cuneiform empire ally cultural trait Hammurabi’s Code rule of law cavalry standing army tribute currency stele import export navigation colony cultural diffusion alphabet

2 Chapter 3 Section 1: The Civilization of Sumer
The Fertile Crescent Located in the Middle East Includes Mesopotamia Lies between two rivers (Tigris and Euphrates) “land between two rivers” Cradle of civilization Agriculture in Mesopotamia Rich soil Grew many grains and vegetables Raised sheep, goats, and cattle Geography of Mesopotamia Contains the foothills of the Taurus and Zagros mountain chains in the North In the South… Foothills flatten into plains Hot, dry region with little rainfall Soil is rich with nutrients because of the two rivers Two rivers could be harmful if the floods were too high and caused damage Farming the Land Used technology to irrigate, or supply water to, their crops. Created funnels to automatically drop seeds into the ground Chapter 3 Section 1: The Civilization of Sumer

3 Better agricultural techniques= produce more food= population grew
City-States of Sumer Better agricultural techniques= produce more food= population grew 3400 BCE cities started to form Cities Emerge First city was Uruk- population 40,000 Others were Ur, Lagash, and Nippur World’s first city-states An independent state that includes a city and its surrounding territory Trade Most trade done by barter A trading system in which people exchange goods directly without using money Used rivers and canals to transport goods Then, used new technologies (the sail and wheel) to make trade easier Social Classes Each class had distinct roles Upper class- ruler, his top officials, powerful priests, wealthy merchants, owners of large plots of land Middle class- farmers and skilled workers Lower class- slaves

4 Sumerian Religion Practiced polytheism Belief in more than one god
Gods controlled every aspect of life- rain, wind, and other elements of nature Behaved much like people- ate drank, slept, married Gods lived forever Needed to keep the gods happy Only priests communicated with the gods Built pyramid-shaped brick tower temples called ziggurats Filled with beautiful paintings and statues

5 At first they drew pictographs
Sumerian Writing At first they drew pictographs Simple pictures that represent objects Cuneiform Created by 3400 BCE Uses triangular-shaped symbols to stand for ideas or things Epic of Gilgamesh 2000 BCE- first story Stories are myths- made-up tales of gods and heroes

6 First leaders were priests
Sumerian Government First leaders were priests When conflicts arose the way cities were ruled began to change Development of Kingship Conflicts over land and water led to wars Priests chose military leaders that would sometimes continue to control city-states- became first kings Kings and Priests Kings needed support of the priests Priests supported the kings by declaring that the gods had chosen them Written Laws Earliest known law code written around 2100 BCE by Ur-Nammu- the King of Ur Laws about marriage, slavery, causing harm to others Achievements Trade spread the Sumerian’s achievements One of the first cultures to make bronze by mixing copper and tin

7 Section 1 Quiz The term Mesopotamia refers to which two rivers?
Danube and Euphrates Nile and Danube Mississippi and Tigris Tigris and Euphrates Another term for a city and the surrounding land it controls is… city-state empire kingdom nation-state The laws written by Ur-Nammu are an example of a law code national control a priestly text a religious text Which of the following is a type of building? Gilgamesh pictographs polytheism ziggurat Cuneiform is a type of… clay tablet mathematics writing wedge

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