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UNIT FOUR DEVELOPMENT. DEFINITION Developmental Psychology is the study of how people grow and change throughout the life span, from birth to death. Includes.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT FOUR DEVELOPMENT. DEFINITION Developmental Psychology is the study of how people grow and change throughout the life span, from birth to death. Includes."— Presentation transcript:


2 DEFINITION Developmental Psychology is the study of how people grow and change throughout the life span, from birth to death. Includes physical, social, and cognitive development.

3 REASONS TO STUDY DEVELOPMENT 1.To see how childhood experiences effect adulthood 2.To discover causes of developmental problems 3.To explore how heredity and environment influence development Nature: some development is triggered by genetics Nurture: family can have a positive and a negative influence on development 4.To see if development is gradual or in defined stages


5 PRE-BIRTH First 8 weeks—embryo Develops fingers, toes, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, heart, and circulatory system 8 weeks to birth—fetus Develops organs and body systems A newborn weighs a billion or more times what it weighed at conception!

6 INFANCY Birth to two years Have reflexes at birth (grasping, breathing, rooting, moro/startle) Hearing is better at birth than vision Have a parental attachment by 4 months

7 HARRY HARLOW Used monkeys to study the issues of attachment, separation anxiety, and contact comfort Harlow's Explanation Harlow's Explanation

8 CHILDHOOD Age two to adolescence Self-esteem declines during elementary school Make judgments based on what society’s views of what is right or wrong

9 CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT Which is more common? neglect Influencing Factors Stress Family History Acceptance of Violence Substance Abuse


11 PHASES OF ADOLESCENCE Early Adolescence Ages 11 to 14 Middle Adolescence Ages 15 to 18 Late Adolescence Ages 18 to 21

12 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT The adolescent growth spurt Lasts 2 to 3 years Begins first for girls Leads to the awkward look of early teens Boys that mature early are looked at as leaders and are popular Adolescence begins with the onset of puberty Girls that mature early are often teased and have lower self-esteem

13 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is a shift during adolescence from relying on parents to relying more on friends for emotional support Parents can still have some influence over morals, education, and career goals Friendships Clique: a group of 4 to 5 close friends Crowd: a group of acquaintances that isn’t as close

14 IDENTITY FORMATION Some adolescents suffer an identity crisis: a turning point in redefining one’s values and life decisions Girls focus on relationships, boys focus on goals and achievements

15 CHALLENGES OF ADOLESCENCE Eating Disorders Substance Exploration and Abuse Sexuality Juvenile Delinquency Avoiding Problems


17 PHASES OF ADULTHOOD Young Adulthood Ages 20 to 40 Middle Adulthood Ages 40 to 65 Late Adulthood Begins at age 65

18 YOUNG ADULTHOOD Key goals for this phase: becoming independent and establishing relationships The Age 30 Transition: verify that decisions on career, marriage, and children are the correct choices

19 MARRIAGE Erik Erikson thinks those without intimate relationships will be lonely and isolated 25% of Americans do not marry Men are marrying around age 27, women marry around age 25 Most Americans marry for love Influences on choice: parents, ethnicity, education, religion, social class, geography

20 DIVORCE About half of all American marriages end in divorce About 25% of all children live in a single-parent home Future marriages usually end up in divorce too Why is divorce more common today? It’s easy to obtain Women are economically able No stigma

21 MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Key goals for this phase: build upon the foundation established in early adulthood in regards to careers, marriage, and family

22 MIDDLE ADULTHOOD ISSUES Transition Changing perspectives because they’ve reached mid-life May include a mid-life crisis Middlescence: create a new identity just as in adolescence Sandwich Generation Care for children and aging parents Empty-Nest Syndrome What happens when the children all move out? Menopause Women reach the end of the menstruation, lose hormone production, and have mood swings Men also have a “menopause” with a decrease in hormone production

23 LATE ADULTHOOD Key goals for this phase: dealing with physical, emotional, cognitive, and financial changes

24 ISSUES FOR THIS PHASE Changes Wrinkles Decline in senses Memory loss (usually forget names) Dementia or Alzheimer’s Retirement Grandparenthood Living Arrangements Why do we age? Programmed Theories: genetics determine how we’ll age Cellular Damage Theories: our cells become injured by trauma and/or toxins

25 HOW TO AGE SUCCESSFULLY Accept your age Plan ahead for financial stability Be positive Find appropriate hobbies Look for challenges

26 DEATH AND DYING Stages of Dying Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance The Funeral Type depends on religion and culture Creates a symbolic separation Bereavement How we mourn a person’s death

27 CHOICES WITH DEATH Hospice: a facility that prepares a person and his/her family for an impending death No visiting hours Care is in a home-like facility or in the patient’s home There isn’t any planning for “treatment” Euthanasia: also called assisted suicide; helps a patient choose when he/she will die Living Will: a legal document that forbids any life support for a patient

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