Presentation on theme: "The Renaissance World History May 8, 2013. What was the Renaissance? “Renaissance” means rebirth – Europe was recovering from the Dark Ages and the plague."— Presentation transcript:
What was the Renaissance? “Renaissance” means rebirth – Europe was recovering from the Dark Ages and the plague People had lost some of their faith in the church and began to put more focus on human beings Began mainly in Italy – Urban societies – Major trading centers Secular – Moved away from life in the church – Focuses more on material objects and enjoying life
Major Italian Cities Italy failed to become united during the Ages Many independent city-states emerged in northern and central Italy that played an important role in Italian politics and art Milan One of the richest cities, it controls trade through the Alps Venice Sitting on the Adriatic, it attracts trade from all over the world Florence Controlled by the De Medici Family, who became great patrons of the arts Genoa Had access to many trade routes All of these cities: Had access to trade routes connecting Europe with Middle Eastern markets Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe Were initially independent city-states governed as republics
Patrons of the Arts Patron = financial supporter of the arts These people would financially provide supplies, education, and materials to artists – This is how many of the famous Renaissance artists became successful Patrons would gain notoriety, and would consider it as charity.
Humanism How did classical knowledge of the ancient Greeks and Romans foster humanism in the Italian Renaissance? Humanism = an intellectual movement that focused on worldly rather than religious matters – Celebrated the individual – Stimulated the study of Greek and Roman literature and culture – Was supported by wealthy patrons
Renaissance Art The Renaissance produced new ideas that were reflected in the arts, philosophy, and literature Education became increasingly secular – Secular = worldly rather than religious Medieval art and literature focused on the Church and salvation – Showed that the focus in society was on the power of the Church and a person’s reliance on God Renaissance art and literature focused on individuals and worldly matters, along with Christianity – Showed that society was becoming more modern and moving more towards logic rather than religion
Renaissance Artists They embraced some of the ideals of Greece and Rome in their art They wanted their subjects to be realistic and focus on humanity and emotion New techniques emerged – Perspective – Vanishing point – Frescos: Painting done on wet plaster became popular because it gave depth to the paintings – Sculpture emphasized realism and the human form – Architecture reached new heights of design
Leonardo da Vinci 1452 – 1519 He was a Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer – Considered a “Genius” He dissected corpses to understand the human body People admire his paintings for their freshness and realism – Most popular include: Mona Lisa The Last Supper Vitruvian Man
Michelangelo Born in 1475 in a small town near Florence, he is considered to be one of the most inspired men who ever lived – Was an artist, sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet He painted/sculpted many biblical scenes as well as ancient Greek and Roman myths His most famous work was the mural to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel He was also a talented architect who designed the dome of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome
David Michelangelo created his masterpiece, David, in 1504
Sistine Chapel About a year after creating David, Pope Julius II summoned Michelangelo to Rome to work on his most famous project, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Creation of Eve Creation of Adam Separation of Light and Darkness The Last Judgment
Raphael He was younger than Michelangelo and Leonardo, and studied their works His paintings are known to blend Christian and classical styles He is best known for his portrayals of Mary The School of Athens was a painting that gathered the great thinkers and scientists
Literature Literature flourished during the Renaissance More and more people were becoming educated and literate – With the new wealth in the city-states, people could focus on other things such as schooling Flourishing of literature can be greatly attributed to Johannes Gutenberg – In 1455 Gutenberg printed the first book produced by using moveable type The Bible
Erasmus Dutch humanist Pushed for a vernacular form of The Bible – “I disagree very much with those who are unwilling that Holy Scripture, translated into the vernacular, be read by the uneducated…As if the strength of the Christian religion consisted in the ignorance of it.” Questioning the church’s motives and morals The Praise of Folly – Used humor to show the immoral and ignorant behavior of people, including the clergy. He felt people would be open minded and be kind to others
Sir Thomas More English Humanist Wrote: Utopia – A book about a perfect society Believed men and women live in harmony. No private property, no one is lazy, all people are educated and the justice system is used to end crime instead of executing criminals
Niccolo Machiavelli A Florentine diplomat and observed kings and princes in foreign courts His most famous work, The Prince, used his personal experience and knowledge of the past to tell rulers how to gain and maintain power – He stressed that the ends justify the means – He urged rulers to use whatever means necessary, fair or not He is considered a very controversial figure today
“Upon this a question arises: whether it is better to be loved than feared or feared than loved? It may be answered that one should wish to be both, but, because it is difficult to unite them in one person, it is much safer to be feared than loved, when, of the two, either must be dispensed with. Because this is to be asserted in general of men, that they are ungrateful, fickle, false, cowardly, covetous, and as long as you successes they are yours entirely; they will offer you their blood, property, life, and children, as it said above, when the need is far distant; but when it approaches they turn against you. And that prince who, relying entirely on their promises, has neglected other precautions, is ruined; because friendships that are obtained by payments, and not by nobility or greatness of mind, may indeed be earned, but they are not secured, and in time of need cannot be relied upon; and men have less scruple in offending one who is beloved than one who is feared, for love is preserved by the link of obligation which, owing to the baseness of men, is broken at every opportunity for their advantage; but fear preserved you by a dread of punishment which never fails. Nevertheless a prince ought to inspire fear in such a way that, if he does not win love, he avoids hated; because he can endure very well being feared whilst he is not hatred, which will always be as long as he abstains from the property of his citizens and subjects and from their women.
The Renaissance Spreads The Renaissance began flourishing in Italy – Soon it would spread to more of mainland Europe This was a sign that Europe was becoming more modern – With it came a flourishing of culture Education Arts Science Technologies Overall understanding of the world – Also leads to exploration and understanding the greater world