Presentation on theme: "Portrait of Abraham Lincoln taken around the time he wrote the Gettysburg Address (1863). NEXT The Civil War begins and develops into a stalemate during."— Presentation transcript:
Portrait of Abraham Lincoln taken around the time he wrote the Gettysburg Address (1863). NEXT The Civil War begins and develops into a stalemate during the first two years. Both Union and Confederate soldiers suffer many hardships. The Civil War Begins, 1861–1862
NEXT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 War Erupts Life in the Army No End in Sight The Civil War Begins, 1861–1862
NEXT Section 1 War Erupts The secession of the Southern states quickly lead to armed conflict between the North and the South.
First Shots at Fort Sumter NEXT 1 SECTION War Erupts Federal troops hold Fort Sumter, harbor of Charleston, South Carolina Abraham Lincoln decides to send supply ships to Fort Sumter Southern states take over most federal forts within their borders Confederates attack fort before supplies arrive, start Civil War U.S. troops defend fort for 34 hours, then surrender Image
Lincoln Calls Out the Militia NEXT 1 SECTION President Lincoln asks states for militiamen to put down uprising Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas join Confederacy In the upper South, state leaders refuse request Volunteers rush to enlist in both North and South Confederate capital is moved to Richmond, Virginia (May, 1861) Robert E. Lee becomes commanding general of Northern Virginia Image
Choosing Sides NEXT 1 SECTION Border states—slave states that border states in which slavery illegal Maryland stays in Union, keeps Washington D.C. within the Union Include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri Western counties, Virginia break away, form Union state, West Virginia Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware stay in Union 24 states make up the Union, 11 states join the Confederacy
Strengths and Weaknesses NEXT 1 SECTION North has 22 million people, South has 9 million people North has more railroad mileage, all the naval power, shipyards 85 percent of nation’s factories located in the North Union has great leader, President Abraham Lincoln Map Continued...
Continued Strengths and Weaknesses NEXT 1 SECTION Confederacy has able generals Confederates defending homes, have more will to fight than invaders Union supply lines will have to stretch far to invade the South
The Confederate Strategy NEXT 1 SECTION Confederacy takes defensive position, does not want to conquer North Hopes to force Britain, France to aid the Confederates Uses King Cotton to win foreign support, withholds cotton exports Europeans have cotton surplus, don’t want to get involved South becomes offensive, tries for big victories to demoralize North
The Union Strategy NEXT 1 SECTION North develops offensive strategy General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan— smother the South’s economy Use naval blockade of South’s coastline Blockade— armed forces stop goods, people into or out of an area Gain control of the Mississippi River, split Confederacy in two Scott’s plan takes time, Lincoln decides to invade Virginia (1861)
Battle of Bull Run NEXT 1 SECTION Confederates defeat Union troops at First Battle of Bull Run (1861) Victory thrills South, North has underestimated their opponent Lincoln sends militia home, calls for real army of 500,000 volunteers Image
NEXT Section 2 Life in the Army Both Union and Confederate soldiers endure many hardships serving in the army during the Civil War.
Those Who Fought NEXT 2 SECTION Most Civil War soldiers are between 18 and 30 years of age Some immigrants serve, most are from Germany, Ireland Most soldiers are farmers, majority are born in U.S. African Americans want to fight, not accepted in North, South armies Later, North accepts African Americans into its ranks Life in the Army Image Continued...
Continued Those Who Fought NEXT 2 SECTION Most Civil War soldiers are volunteers, they volunteer to: - escape boredom of factory, farm work - join friends, neighbors - seek adventure, glory - get recruitment money - show loyalty to country, state
Turning Civilians into Soldiers NEXT 2 SECTION After enlisting, a soldier is sent to training camp, usually lives in tent Follows training schedule, gets uniform, clothing often poor quality At camp, soldiers get plenty of food; in the field, get limited food Image
Hardships of Army Life NEXT 2 SECTION Civil War soldiers in field, often wet, cold, live in crude shelters Causes widespread sicknesses Results in poor hygiene—conditions, practices that promote health Camps are unsanitary, soldiers often go for weeks without bathing Image
Changes in Military Technology NEXT 2 SECTION Weapons improve, results in: - higher casualty rate - battle tactics change Use rifles—guns with grooved barrel, cause bullets to spin Minié ball—bullet with hollow base Rifles using minié balls shoot farther, more accurately than muskets Continued...
NEXT 2 SECTION Ironclads—warships covered with iron, better than wooden warships First ironclad battle off coast of Virginia (1862) includes: -Confederate Virginia (Merrimack) -Union Monitor Continued Changes in Military Technology After about four hours, battle ends in a draw Image
NEXT Section 3 No End in Sight In the first two years of the war, neither side gains a decisive victory over the other.
Union Victories in the West NEXT Ulysses S. Grant, Union general in the West 3 SECTION Grant’s forces capture two Confederate river forts in Tennessee Residents of Nashville flee, Union troops march into Nashville (1862) No End in Sight Image
The Battle of Shiloh NEXT 3 SECTION Union army fights Confederate army at Battle of Shiloh (1862) Confederate commanding general Albert S. Johnston is killed Union troops are lead by Ulysses S. Grant Fresh Union troops arrive, South retreats 13,000 Union soldiers are killed, 11,000 Confederates are killed Interactive
The Fall of New Orleans NEXT 3 SECTION Admiral David Farragut, Union fleet capture New Orleans Confederates control stretch of river near their fort at Vicksburg Union controls most of the Mississippi River
Lee Claims Victories in the East NEXT 3 SECTION General George McClellan, Union troops attempt to capture Richmond Report size of Union army, Robert E. Lee’s army attacks Union army Confederate Jeb Stuart, cavalry (soldiers on horseback) spy McClellan Both sides clash for a week Lee ends the Union threat in Virginia Confederates defeat Union army at Seven Days’ Battles (1862) Image
Lee Invades the North NEXT 3 SECTION General Lee, troops invade Maryland (September 1862) Several reasons for taking war to the North: -hopes victory in North will force President Lincoln to talk peace -gives Virginia farmers a rest from war during harvest -Confederates could plunder Northern farmers for food -hopes invasion will convince Britain, France to aid Confederacy
Bloody Antietam NEXT 3 SECTION General McClellan’s army fights Lee’s army, Battle of Antietam (1862) Lee’s crippled army retreats into Virginia, McClellan fails to pursue After 1 day, neither side gains ground, 25,000 men are killed, wounded President Lincoln fires McClellan Image
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