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Lifespan Development 7-9% Of AP Psychology Exam. Development is the processes and stages of growth from conception across the lifespan. Development encompasses.

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Presentation on theme: "Lifespan Development 7-9% Of AP Psychology Exam. Development is the processes and stages of growth from conception across the lifespan. Development encompasses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lifespan Development 7-9% Of AP Psychology Exam

2 Development is the processes and stages of growth from conception across the lifespan. Development encompasses changes in physical, cognitive, moral and social behaviors.

3 Major Issues in Developmental Psychology Nature v. Nurture Nature v. Nurture Robert Plomin says that no two children are born into the same family. Robert Plomin says that no two children are born into the same family. Continuity v. Discontinuity Continuity v. Discontinuity Stability v. Change Stability v. Change

4 Research Methods Cross-sectional Cross-sectional Longitudinal Longitudinal Cohort – sequential Cohort – sequential Cohort effect may be a problem. Cohort effect is a result of social or political conditions for an age group and this becomes an intervening variable. Cohort effect may be a problem. Cohort effect is a result of social or political conditions for an age group and this becomes an intervening variable. Historical Historical Time is the independent variable Time is the independent variable

5 Ethical Issues with Developmental Psychology What are the required ethical concerns for use of humans in research? What are the required ethical concerns for use of humans in research? What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying children? What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying children?

6 Prenatal Development

7 Fertilization

8 Watch This! Ted Talk - Alexander Tsiaras Ted Talk - Alexander Tsiaras

9 Conception ZygoteBlastulaEmbryoFetus Age of viability

10 Physical Development- CephalocaudalProximodistal

11 Genetics- GenotypePhenotype

12 Fun with Genetics Activity is available

13 Teratogens- Disease agents, drugs and other environment agents that can cause birth defects during the prenatal period. Examples The Mind #12 5 mins The Mind #12 5 mins

14 The Mind #12 Teratogens 13mins #13 Cababilities of a Newborn 4 mins 4 mins

15 Design a Kid Activity What will your child look like?

16 Infancy

17 Physical Development Growth Rate declines during infancy but is faster than any post natal period Growth Rate declines during infancy but is faster than any post natal period Neo-Natal Reflexes such as: Neo-Natal Reflexes such as: Babinski ( big toe moves toward the top surface of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked) Babinski ( big toe moves toward the top surface of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked) Moro (startle reflex) Moro (startle reflex) Grasping, Stepping, Rooting, Licking, Pursing Grasping, Stepping, Rooting, Licking, Pursing Withdrawal from pain Withdrawal from pain Maturation and/or Learning Maturation and/or Learning These combine to replace reflexes around 2 months of age These combine to replace reflexes around 2 months of age Critical (now referred to as sensitive) period Critical (now referred to as sensitive) period Optimal (best) time for development of certain capacities Optimal (best) time for development of certain capacities

18 EAS Temperament Survey available in Myers’ ancillary (delete if not available) Temperament –basic style of interacting with your world. May be termed as disposition. Temperament –basic style of interacting with your world. May be termed as disposition. These are believed to be biological in origin and relatively consistent. (Thomas and Chess, 1977) These are believed to be biological in origin and relatively consistent. (Thomas and Chess, 1977) Easy Easy Difficult Difficult Slow-to-Warm Slow-to-Warm Take the provided survey and wait for instruction of how to score your own responses. Take the provided survey and wait for instruction of how to score your own responses. EAS Temperament Survey, Buss and Plomin, measures three temperament dimensions: activity, emotionality and sociability. EAS Temperament Survey, Buss and Plomin, measures three temperament dimensions: activity, emotionality and sociability.

19 To score the survey REVERSE the number you placed in front of these items 6, 18 and 19 (5=1, 4=2, 3=3, 2=4 and 1=5) REVERSE the number you placed in front of these items 6, 18 and 19 (5=1, 4=2, 3=3, 2=4 and 1=5) Activity= 2, 7, 10, and 17 Activity= 2, 7, 10, and 17 Sociability= 1, 6, 15 and 20 Sociability= 1, 6, 15 and 20 Emotionality= Emotionality= Distress=4, 9, 11 and 16 Distress=4, 9, 11 and 16 Fearfulness=3, 12, 14 and 19 Fearfulness=3, 12, 14 and 19 Anger=5, 8, 13 and 18 Anger=5, 8, 13 and 18

20 Social Development Does an individual have someone (something) that brings comfort during distress? Attachment Classic Studies: Classic Studies: Harry Harlow - Contact Comfort Harry Harlow - Contact Comfort Monkey Love Monkey Love Monkey Love Monkey Love John Bowlby – Attachment John Bowlby – Attachment attachment 5 mins attachment 5 mins attachment 5 mins attachment 5 mins Mary Ainsworth - Strange Situation Test Mary Ainsworth - Strange Situation Test strange situation test 4 mins strange situation test 4 mins strange situation test 4 mins strange situation test 4 mins

21 Ainsworth expanded on Bowlby’s work Attachment – a lasting psychological connectedness between human beings (Bowlby, 1969) Attachment – a lasting psychological connectedness between human beings (Bowlby, 1969) Bowlby suggests the characteristics of attachment (1969): Bowlby suggests the characteristics of attachment (1969): Safe haven, secure base, proximity maintenance, separation distress Safe haven, secure base, proximity maintenance, separation distress Ainsworth used Strange Situation Test to identify styles of attachment (1970s): Secure Ambivalent (anxious/resistant) Avoidant Disorganized/disoriented/insecure (added later by Main and Soloman, 1986)

22 Just an additional note: Separation anxiety – emotional distress in many infants when they are separated from people whom they have formed an attachment. Peaks around months and then declines. Separation anxiety – emotional distress in many infants when they are separated from people whom they have formed an attachment. Peaks around months and then declines. Stranger Anxiety –distress that young children experience when they are exposed to people who are unfamiliar to them. Infants can begin to experience stranger anxiety as young as six months of age, but it usually begins somewhere between eight and nine months of age. Peaks around months and declines. Stranger Anxiety –distress that young children experience when they are exposed to people who are unfamiliar to them. Infants can begin to experience stranger anxiety as young as six months of age, but it usually begins somewhere between eight and nine months of age. Peaks around months and declines.

23 Cognitive Development Preference for face-like patterns Preference for face-like patterns Visual Cliff Visual Cliff Language Language Memory Memory What are babies thinking? Ted Talks

24 The Mind #14 Cognitive Development 7mins #14 Cognitive Development 7mins The Mind scroll to #14 The Mind scroll to #14 The Mind scroll to #14 The Mind scroll to #14

25 Childhood

26 Activities: Decades of Life

27 Decades of Life For each of the following “decades of life,” list three terms, phrases or impressions you have of that decade. For each of the following “decades of life,” list three terms, phrases or impressions you have of that decade. Place the letter H next to the decade that you think is, will be or has been the hardest. Place the letter H next to the decade that you think is, will be or has been the hardest. Place the letter E next to the decade that you think is, will be or has been the easiest. Place the letter E next to the decade that you think is, will be or has been the easiest

28 Physical Development Brain development Brain development Growth rate continues to decline Growth rate continues to decline Fine motor skills (slower) Fine motor skills (slower) Examples Examples Gross motor skills (rapid) Gross motor skills (rapid) Examples Examples

29 Social Development Rouge test 3 mins Rouge test 3 mins Rouge test 3 mins Rouge test 3 mins Gender Identity Gender Identity Baby X Studies Baby X Studies Gender Role Gender Role Gender Typing Gender Typing Gender Scheme Theory Gender Scheme Theory Egocentrism- Egocentrism- Do you have a brother? Do you have a brother? Does your brother have a brother? Does your brother have a brother? Theory of Mind Theory of Mind

30 Cognitive Development Learning Learning Associations (Piaget) Associations (Piaget) Rewards (Skinner) Rewards (Skinner) Modeling (Bandura) Modeling (Bandura) Language Language Represent world with symbols Represent world with symbols “Learn to read” “Learn to read” Thinking Skills Thinking Skills Information Processing Information Processing

31 Maturation vs. Learning

32 Maturation vs. Training Complete the assignment to distinguish maturation and learning (training). Complete the assignment to distinguish maturation and learning (training). Work with your “family unit” as you did the design-a-kid activity. Work with your “family unit” as you did the design-a-kid activity. Think about the development of your “child” Think about the development of your “child” We will discuss this shortly. We will discuss this shortly.

33 Adolescence Who am I?

34 Who Am I? List 10 descriptive phrases that explain who you think you are. List 10 descriptive phrases that explain who you think you are. What is the biggest developmental task in adolescence? What is the biggest developmental task in adolescence?

35 Theories of Adolescence G. Stanley Hall G. Stanley Hall Storm and Stress Storm and Stress Topics of Discussion (next slide) Margaret Mead Margaret Mead Self-fulfilling Prophesy Self-fulfilling Prophesy

36 Family Conflicts Percentage of Male and Female Adolescents Rating Issues as Leading to Family Conflict Eating dinner with family 19.4 Eating dinner with family 19.4 Arguing 15.8 Arguing 15.8 Church attendance 15.6 Church attendance 15.6 Going around with certain boy or girl 15.3 Going around with certain boy or girl 15.3 Being home enough 15.3 Being home enough 15.3 Getting to use the car 13.3 Getting to use the car 13.3 Understanding each other 11.4 Understanding each other 11.4 Responsibility at home 11.2 Responsibility at home 11.2

37 Reference: Kinloch, G. C. Parent-youth conflict at home. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1970, 40(4), 661. Copyright 1970 by the American Orthopsychiatric Association, Inc. Kinloch, G. C. Parent-youth conflict at home. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1970, 40(4), 661. Copyright 1970 by the American Orthopsychiatric Association, Inc. Have things really changed? Have things really changed?

38 Margaret Mead Self-fulfilling Prophesy Self-fulfilling Prophesy

39 Physical Development Puberty Puberty

40 Adolescent Brain

41

42 Reading Beautiful Brains 0/teenage-brains/dobbs-text 0/teenage-brains/dobbs-text 0/teenage-brains/dobbs-text 0/teenage-brains/dobbs-text

43 Social Development Bonds with peers Bonds with peers Dating Dating Personal Fable Personal Fable Major task of Identity Formation Major task of Identity Formation Who am I? Who am I? Erik Erikson Erik Erikson

44 Cognitive Development Capability of logical, hypothetical and abstract thinking Capability of logical, hypothetical and abstract thinking Development of introspection Development of introspection Growing awareness of one’s own mental process Growing awareness of one’s own mental process Metacognition Metacognition

45 Are you ready to be a parent?

46 Adult and Later Years

47 The Decades of Life Complete (if needed) the decades of life to consider what you think it will be like to be an “adult” Complete (if needed) the decades of life to consider what you think it will be like to be an “adult” We will share in a few minutes. We will share in a few minutes.

48 Research Design

49 Cross sectional Cross sectional Longitudinal Longitudinal Cohort sequential Cohort sequential

50 Physical Changes Abilities peak and begin a gradual decline Abilities peak and begin a gradual decline Women undergo menopause (hormonal and reproductive changes) Women undergo menopause (hormonal and reproductive changes) Men may undergo some sort of “change” themselves Men may undergo some sort of “change” themselves

51 Social Changes Mate selection Mate selection Parenting (pre-parenting, parenting and Empty- Nest Syndrome) Parenting (pre-parenting, parenting and Empty- Nest Syndrome) Career Selection Career Selection Identity Crisis (“mid-life” crisis or “middle age crazy”) Identity Crisis (“mid-life” crisis or “middle age crazy”)

52 Cognitive Changes Reaction times appear to slow Reaction times appear to slow Decline in memory Decline in memory Intelligence Intelligence Fluid- innate abilities independent of experience Fluid- innate abilities independent of experience Example Example Crystallized- knowledge acquired through education and experience Crystallized- knowledge acquired through education and experience Example Example

53 Later Years

54 Physical Changes General decline in muscle tone and physical abilities General decline in muscle tone and physical abilities Longevity Longevity Health and Age Health and Age Sensory, Motor and Nervous Systems Sensory, Motor and Nervous Systems

55 Social Changes Retirement Retirement Social isolation Social isolation

56 Cognitive Changes Declines continue Declines continue Memory- changes observed in secondary memory (the learning of new material) Memory- changes observed in secondary memory (the learning of new material) Fluid Intelligence shows minor decline with age Fluid Intelligence shows minor decline with age Terminal Drop –a drop in physical and biological functioning that precedes death by about 5 years Terminal Drop –a drop in physical and biological functioning that precedes death by about 5 years Dementia- progressive decline in memory, intellectual abilities often accompanied with personality changes (5-15% of adult population) Dementia- progressive decline in memory, intellectual abilities often accompanied with personality changes (5-15% of adult population)

57 Alzheimer’s

58 The Mind #16 Aging and Cognitive development #16 Aging and Cognitive development Learner.org Learner.org Learner.org #17 Aging and memory #17 Aging and memory #19 Alzheimer’s #19 Alzheimer’s

59 Theories of Development Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner, Kohlberg, Erikson, Kubler-Ross Kohlberg, Erikson, Kubler-Ross

60 Jean Piaget Cognitive Development

61

62 Piaget and Playdoh Piaget 4 mins Piaget 4 mins Piaget 4 mins Piaget 4 mins Alan’s DVD Alan’s DVD

63 Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural or Social Development Theory (1920s) Children acquire most of their culture’s cognitive skills and problem solving strategies through collaborative dialogues with more experienced members of their society. (Weiten, p 437) Children acquire most of their culture’s cognitive skills and problem solving strategies through collaborative dialogues with more experienced members of their society. (Weiten, p 437) Zone of proximal development- the gap between what the learner can accomplish alone and what can be achieved with guidance from a skilled partner. Zone of proximal development- the gap between what the learner can accomplish alone and what can be achieved with guidance from a skilled partner. Scaffolding – when assistance provided to a child is adjusted as learning progresses Scaffolding – when assistance provided to a child is adjusted as learning progresses

64 Lev Vygotsky Intro 4 mins Intro 4 mins Intro 4 mins Intro 4 mins 3 mins on ZPD scaffolding 3 mins on ZPD scaffolding 3 mins on ZPD scaffolding 3 mins on ZPD scaffolding Differs from Piaget Differs from Piaget More emphasis on culture More emphasis on culture More emphasis on social factors More emphasis on social factors More emphasis on the role of language More emphasis on the role of language

65 Current Application of Vygotsky “Reciprocal teaching” improves students’ ability to learn “Reciprocal teaching” improves students’ ability to learn Teachers and students collaborate in learning and practicing four key skills Teachers and students collaborate in learning and practicing four key skills Summarizing Summarizing Questioning Questioning Clarifying Clarifying Predicting Predicting Do you see this method in your schooling? Do you see this method in your schooling?

66 Jerome Bruner Elaborated on Piaget and Vygotsky’s ideas Elaborated on Piaget and Vygotsky’s ideas Like Vygotsky, stressed social interaction in development Like Vygotsky, stressed social interaction in development Unlike Piaget (who thought language was a tool which reflects our cognitive structures), believed that language can speed up cognitive development Unlike Piaget (who thought language was a tool which reflects our cognitive structures), believed that language can speed up cognitive development Modes of representation- a way of thinking about knowledge at different ages Modes of representation- a way of thinking about knowledge at different ages

67 Jerome Bruner Bruner 2:30 Impact of Bruner's thinking Bruner 2:30 Impact of Bruner's thinking Bruner 2:30 Impact of Bruner's thinking Bruner 2:30 Impact of Bruner's thinking According to Jerome Bruner, instructors should try to encourage students to discover principles by themselves. According to Jerome Bruner, instructors should try to encourage students to discover principles by themselves. Instructors and students should engage in active dialog. Instructors and students should engage in active dialog. Instructors should try to translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner’s current state of understanding. Instructors should try to translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner’s current state of understanding. Spiral manner- curriculum presented in a manner where students build on what they have learned (spiraling) Spiral manner- curriculum presented in a manner where students build on what they have learned (spiraling) Do you see this in your educational process? Do you see this in your educational process?

68 Theories of Cognitive Development Look for a way to remember details of these theories Look for a way to remember details of these theories Made a mnemonic perhaps Made a mnemonic perhaps Put the ideas into your own words Put the ideas into your own words Make comparisons/contrasts of details of theories Make comparisons/contrasts of details of theories Recall key terms Recall key terms You can do it! You can do it!

69 Sigmund Freud Psychosexual Stages of Development Stages: Stages: Oral Oral Anal Anal Phallic Phallic Latent Latent Genital Genital

70 Erik Erikson Lifespan Development

71

72 Erikson psych files mnemonic for Erikson's stages psych files mnemonic for Erikson's stages psych files mnemonic for Erikson's stages psych files mnemonic for Erikson's stages

73 Lawrence Kohlberg Moral Development

74

75 Kohlberg clip Kohlberg 5 mins Kohlberg 5 mins Kohlberg 5 mins Kohlberg 5 mins

76 Carol Gilligan A student of Kohlberg A student of Kohlberg Disagreed with Kohlberg on the basis of a bias against women Disagreed with Kohlberg on the basis of a bias against women See Handout See Handout

77

78 Diana Baumrind Parenting Styles The most heavily research aspect of parenting has been how parents seek to control their children. Investigators have identified three parenting styles Authoritarian Permissive Authoritative **** (Too hard, too soft, just right)

79 Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Death and Dying Stages of Grief Stages of Grief D A B D A

80 Also referred to as Stages of Grief

81 Children and Death Kubler Ross and children Kubler Ross and children Kubler Ross and children Kubler Ross and children 3 mins 3 mins

82 Have you got all of this? Figure out a way to learn all of the terms Figure out what is the best way for you to remember all of the theories Expect a Free response question to apply theory to a new situation (See sample FRQ)


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