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7-9% Of AP Psychology Exam

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1 7-9% Of AP Psychology Exam
Lifespan Development 7-9% Of AP Psychology Exam

2 Development is the processes and stages of growth from conception across the lifespan.
Development encompasses changes in physical, cognitive, moral and social behaviors.

3 Major Issues in Developmental Psychology
Nature v. Nurture Robert Plomin says that no two children are born into the same family. Continuity v. Discontinuity Stability v. Change

4 Research Methods Cross-sectional Longitudinal Cohort – sequential
Cohort effect may be a problem. Cohort effect is a result of social or political conditions for an age group and this becomes an intervening variable. Historical Time is the independent variable

5 Ethical Issues with Developmental Psychology
What are the required ethical concerns for use of humans in research? What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying children?

6 Prenatal Development Fetus at 9 weeks

7 Fertilization

8 Watch This! Ted Talk - Alexander Tsiaras

9 Conception Zygote Blastula Embryo Fetus Age of viability

10 Physical Development-
Cephalocaudal Proximodistal

11 Genetics- Genotype Phenotype

12 Fun with Genetics Activity is available

13 Teratogens- Disease agents , drugs and other environment agents that can cause birth defects during the prenatal period. Examples The Mind #12 5 mins

14 #13 Cababilities of a Newborn
The Mind #12 Teratogens 13mins #13 Cababilities of a Newborn 4 mins

15 What will your child look like?
Design a Kid Activity What will your child look like?

16 Infancy

17 Physical Development Growth Rate declines during infancy but is faster than any post natal period Neo-Natal Reflexes such as: Babinski (big toe moves toward the top surface of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked) Moro (startle reflex) Grasping, Stepping, Rooting, Licking, Pursing Withdrawal from pain Maturation and/or Learning These combine to replace reflexes around 2 months of age Critical (now referred to as sensitive) period Optimal (best) time for development of certain capacities

18 EAS Temperament Survey available in Myers’ ancillary (delete if not available)
Temperament –basic style of interacting with your world. May be termed as disposition. These are believed to be biological in origin and relatively consistent. (Thomas and Chess, 1977) Easy Difficult Slow-to-Warm Take the provided survey and wait for instruction of how to score your own responses. EAS Temperament Survey, Buss and Plomin, measures three temperament dimensions: activity, emotionality and sociability.

19 To score the survey REVERSE the number you placed in front of these items 6, 18 and 19 (5=1, 4=2, 3=3, 2=4 and 1=5) Activity= 2, 7, 10, and 17 Sociability= 1, 6, 15 and 20 Emotionality= Distress=4, 9, 11 and 16 Fearfulness=3, 12, 14 and 19 Anger=5, 8, 13 and 18

20 Social Development Does an individual have someone (something) that brings comfort during distress? Attachment Classic Studies: Harry Harlow - Contact Comfort Monkey Love John Bowlby – Attachment attachment 5 mins Mary Ainsworth - Strange Situation Test strange situation test 4 mins

21 Ainsworth expanded on Bowlby’s work
Attachment – a lasting psychological connectedness between human beings (Bowlby, 1969) Bowlby suggests the characteristics of attachment (1969): Safe haven, secure base, proximity maintenance, separation distress Ainsworth used Strange Situation Test to identify styles of attachment (1970s): Secure Ambivalent (anxious/resistant) Avoidant Disorganized/disoriented/insecure (added later by Main and Soloman, 1986)

22 Just an additional note:
Separation anxiety – emotional distress in many infants when they are separated from people whom they have formed an attachment. Peaks around months and then declines. Stranger Anxiety –distress that young children experience when they are exposed to people who are unfamiliar to them. Infants can begin to experience stranger anxiety as young as six months of age, but it usually begins somewhere between eight and nine months of age. Peaks around months and declines.

23 Cognitive Development
Preference for face-like patterns Visual Cliff Language Memory What are babies thinking? Ted Talks

24 The Mind #14 Cognitive Development 7mins The Mind scroll to #14

25 Childhood

26 Activities: Decades of Life

27 Decades of Life For each of the following “decades of life,” list three terms, phrases or impressions you have of that decade. Place the letter H next to the decade that you think is, will be or has been the hardest. Place the letter E next to the decade that you think is, will be or has been the easiest.

28 Physical Development Brain development
Growth rate continues to decline Fine motor skills (slower) Examples Gross motor skills (rapid)

29 Social Development Gender Identity Baby X Studies Egocentrism-
Rouge test 3 mins Gender Identity Baby X Studies Gender Role Gender Typing Gender Scheme Theory Egocentrism- Do you have a brother? Does your brother have a brother? Theory of Mind

30 Cognitive Development
Learning Associations (Piaget) Rewards (Skinner) Modeling (Bandura) Language Represent world with symbols “Learn to read” Thinking Skills Information Processing

31 Maturation vs. Learning

32 Maturation vs. Training
Complete the assignment to distinguish maturation and learning (training). Work with your “family unit” as you did the design-a-kid activity. Think about the development of your “child” We will discuss this shortly.

33 Adolescence Who am I?

34 Who Am I? List 10 descriptive phrases that explain who you think you are. What is the biggest developmental task in adolescence?

35 Theories of Adolescence
G. Stanley Hall Storm and Stress Topics of Discussion (next slide) Margaret Mead Self-fulfilling Prophesy

36 Family Conflicts Percentage of Male and Female Adolescents Rating Issues as Leading to Family Conflict Eating dinner with family Arguing Church attendance Going around with certain boy or girl Being home enough Getting to use the car Understanding each other Responsibility at home

37 Reference: Kinloch, G. C. Parent-youth conflict at home. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1970, 40(4), Copyright 1970 by the American Orthopsychiatric Association, Inc. Have things really changed?

38 Margaret Mead Self-fulfilling Prophesy

39 Physical Development Puberty

40 Adolescent Brain


42 Reading Beautiful Brains

43 Social Development Bonds with peers Dating Personal Fable
Major task of Identity Formation Who am I? Erik Erikson

44 Cognitive Development
Capability of logical, hypothetical and abstract thinking Development of introspection Growing awareness of one’s own mental process Metacognition

45 Are you ready to be a parent?

46 Adult and Later Years

47 The Decades of Life Complete (if needed) the decades of life to consider what you think it will be like to be an “adult” We will share in a few minutes.

48 Research Design

49 Research Design Cross sectional Longitudinal Cohort sequential

50 Physical Changes Abilities peak and begin a gradual decline
Women undergo menopause (hormonal and reproductive changes) Men may undergo some sort of “change” themselves

51 Social Changes Mate selection
Parenting (pre-parenting, parenting and Empty- Nest Syndrome) Career Selection Identity Crisis (“mid-life” crisis or “middle age crazy”)

52 Cognitive Changes Reaction times appear to slow Decline in memory
Intelligence Fluid- innate abilities independent of experience Example Crystallized- knowledge acquired through education and experience

53 Later Years

54 Physical Changes General decline in muscle tone and physical abilities
Longevity Health and Age Sensory, Motor and Nervous Systems

55 Social Changes Retirement Social isolation

56 Cognitive Changes Declines continue
Memory- changes observed in secondary memory (the learning of new material) Fluid Intelligence shows minor decline with age Terminal Drop –a drop in physical and biological functioning that precedes death by about 5 years Dementia- progressive decline in memory, intellectual abilities often accompanied with personality changes (5-15% of adult population)

57 Alzheimer’s

58 The Mind #16 Aging and Cognitive development
#17 Aging and memory #19 Alzheimer’s

59 Theories of Development
Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner, Kohlberg, Erikson, Kubler-Ross

60 Jean Piaget Cognitive Development


62 Piaget and Playdoh Piaget 4 mins Alan’s DVD

63 Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural or Social Development Theory (1920s)
Children acquire most of their culture’s cognitive skills and problem solving strategies through collaborative dialogues with more experienced members of their society. (Weiten, p 437) Zone of proximal development- the gap between what the learner can accomplish alone and what can be achieved with guidance from a skilled partner. Scaffolding – when assistance provided to a child is adjusted as learning progresses

64 Lev Vygotsky Intro 4 mins 3 mins on ZPD scaffolding
Differs from Piaget More emphasis on culture More emphasis on social factors More emphasis on the role of language

65 Current Application of Vygotsky
“Reciprocal teaching” improves students’ ability to learn Teachers and students collaborate in learning and practicing four key skills Summarizing Questioning Clarifying Predicting Do you see this method in your schooling?

66 Jerome Bruner Elaborated on Piaget and Vygotsky’s ideas
Like Vygotsky, stressed social interaction in development Unlike Piaget (who thought language was a tool which reflects our cognitive structures), believed that language can speed up cognitive development Modes of representation- a way of thinking about knowledge at different ages

67 Jerome Bruner Bruner 2:30 Impact of Bruner's thinking
According to Jerome Bruner, instructors should try to encourage students to discover principles by themselves. Instructors and students should engage in active dialog. Instructors should try to translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner’s current state of understanding. Spiral manner- curriculum presented in a manner where students build on what they have learned (spiraling) Do you see this in your educational process?

68 Theories of Cognitive Development
Look for a way to remember details of these theories Made a mnemonic perhaps Put the ideas into your own words Make comparisons/contrasts of details of theories Recall key terms You can do it!

69 Sigmund Freud Psychosexual Stages of Development
Oral Anal Phallic Latent Genital

70 Erik Erikson Lifespan Development


72 Erikson psych files mnemonic for Erikson's stages

73 Lawrence Kohlberg Moral Development


75 Kohlberg clip Kohlberg 5 mins

76 Carol Gilligan A student of Kohlberg
Disagreed with Kohlberg on the basis of a bias against women See Handout


78 Diana Baumrind Parenting Styles
The most heavily research aspect of parenting has been how parents seek to control their children. Investigators have identified three parenting styles Authoritarian Permissive Authoritative **** (Too hard, too soft, just right)

79 Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Death and Dying
Stages of Grief D A B

80 Also referred to as Stages of Grief

81 Children and Death Kubler Ross and children 3 mins

82 Have you got all of this? Figure out a way to learn all of the terms
Figure out what is the best way for you to remember all of the theories Expect a Free response question to apply theory to a new situation (See sample FRQ)

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