Presentation on theme: "7-9% Of AP Psychology Exam"— Presentation transcript:
1 7-9% Of AP Psychology Exam Lifespan Development7-9% Of AP Psychology Exam
2 Development is the processes and stages of growth from conception across the lifespan. Development encompasses changes in physical, cognitive, moral and social behaviors.
3 Major Issues in Developmental Psychology Nature v. NurtureRobert Plomin says that no two children are born into the same family.Continuity v. DiscontinuityStability v. Change
4 Research Methods Cross-sectional Longitudinal Cohort – sequential Cohort effect may be a problem. Cohort effect is a result of social or political conditions for an age group and this becomes an intervening variable.HistoricalTime is the independent variable
5 Ethical Issues with Developmental Psychology What are the required ethical concerns for use of humans in research?What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying children?
17 Physical DevelopmentGrowth Rate declines during infancy but is faster than any post natal periodNeo-Natal Reflexes such as:Babinski (big toe moves toward the top surface of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked)Moro (startle reflex)Grasping, Stepping, Rooting, Licking, PursingWithdrawal from painMaturation and/or LearningThese combine to replace reflexes around 2 months of ageCritical (now referred to as sensitive) periodOptimal (best) time for development of certain capacities
18 EAS Temperament Survey available in Myers’ ancillary (delete if not available) Temperament –basic style of interacting with your world. May be termed as disposition.These are believed to be biological in origin and relatively consistent. (Thomas and Chess, 1977)EasyDifficultSlow-to-WarmTake the provided survey and wait for instruction of how to score your own responses.EAS Temperament Survey, Buss and Plomin, measures three temperament dimensions: activity, emotionality and sociability.
19 To score the surveyREVERSE the number you placed in front of these items 6, 18 and 19 (5=1, 4=2, 3=3, 2=4 and 1=5)Activity= 2, 7, 10, and 17Sociability= 1, 6, 15 and 20Emotionality=Distress=4, 9, 11 and 16Fearfulness=3, 12, 14 and 19Anger=5, 8, 13 and 18
20 Social DevelopmentDoes an individual have someone (something) that brings comfort during distress?AttachmentClassic Studies:Harry Harlow - Contact ComfortMonkey LoveJohn Bowlby – Attachmentattachment 5 minsMary Ainsworth - Strange Situation Teststrange situation test 4 mins
21 Ainsworth expanded on Bowlby’s work Attachment – a lasting psychological connectedness between human beings (Bowlby, 1969)Bowlby suggests the characteristics of attachment (1969):Safe haven, secure base, proximity maintenance, separation distressAinsworth used Strange Situation Test to identify styles of attachment (1970s):SecureAmbivalent (anxious/resistant)AvoidantDisorganized/disoriented/insecure (added later by Main and Soloman, 1986)
22 Just an additional note: Separation anxiety – emotional distress in many infants when they are separated from people whom they have formed an attachment. Peaks around months and then declines.Stranger Anxiety –distress that young children experience when they are exposed to people who are unfamiliar to them. Infants can begin to experience stranger anxiety as young as six months of age, but it usually begins somewhere between eight and nine months of age. Peaks around months and declines.
23 Cognitive Development Preference for face-like patternsVisual CliffLanguageMemoryWhat are babies thinking? Ted Talks
24 The Mind#14 Cognitive Development 7minsThe Mind scroll to #14
27 Decades of LifeFor each of the following “decades of life,” list three terms, phrases or impressions you have of that decade.Place the letter H next to the decade that you think is, will be or has been the hardest.Place the letter E next to the decade that you think is, will be or has been the easiest.
28 Physical Development Brain development Growth rate continues to declineFine motor skills (slower)ExamplesGross motor skills (rapid)
29 Social Development Gender Identity Baby X Studies Egocentrism- Rouge test 3 minsGender IdentityBaby X StudiesGender RoleGender TypingGender Scheme TheoryEgocentrism-Do you have a brother?Does your brother have a brother?Theory of Mind
30 Cognitive Development LearningAssociations (Piaget)Rewards (Skinner)Modeling (Bandura)LanguageRepresent world with symbols“Learn to read”Thinking SkillsInformation Processing
32 Maturation vs. Training Complete the assignment to distinguish maturation and learning (training).Work with your “family unit” as you did the design-a-kid activity.Think about the development of your “child”We will discuss this shortly.
34 Who Am I?List 10 descriptive phrases that explain who you think you are.What is the biggest developmental task in adolescence?
35 Theories of Adolescence G. Stanley HallStorm and StressTopics of Discussion (next slide)Margaret MeadSelf-fulfilling Prophesy
36 Family Conflicts Percentage of Male and Female Adolescents Rating Issues as Leading to Family ConflictEating dinner with familyArguingChurch attendanceGoing around with certain boy or girlBeing home enoughGetting to use the carUnderstanding each otherResponsibility at home
37 Reference:Kinloch, G. C. Parent-youth conflict at home. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1970, 40(4), Copyright 1970 by the American Orthopsychiatric Association, Inc.Have things really changed?
49 Research DesignCross sectionalLongitudinalCohort sequential
50 Physical Changes Abilities peak and begin a gradual decline Women undergo menopause (hormonal and reproductive changes)Men may undergo some sort of “change” themselves
51 Social Changes Mate selection Parenting (pre-parenting, parenting and Empty- Nest Syndrome)Career SelectionIdentity Crisis (“mid-life” crisis or “middle age crazy”)
52 Cognitive Changes Reaction times appear to slow Decline in memory IntelligenceFluid- innate abilities independent of experienceExampleCrystallized- knowledge acquired through education and experience
56 Cognitive Changes Declines continue Memory- changes observed in secondary memory (the learning of new material)Fluid Intelligence shows minor decline with ageTerminal Drop –a drop in physical and biological functioning that precedes death by about 5 yearsDementia- progressive decline in memory, intellectual abilities often accompanied with personality changes (5-15% of adult population)
63 Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural or Social Development Theory (1920s) Children acquire most of their culture’s cognitive skills and problem solving strategies through collaborative dialogues with more experienced members of their society. (Weiten, p 437)Zone of proximal development- the gap between what the learner can accomplish alone and what can be achieved with guidance from a skilled partner.Scaffolding – when assistance provided to a child is adjusted as learning progresses
64 Lev Vygotsky Intro 4 mins 3 mins on ZPD scaffolding Differs from PiagetMore emphasis on cultureMore emphasis on social factorsMore emphasis on the role of language
65 Current Application of Vygotsky “Reciprocal teaching” improves students’ ability to learnTeachers and students collaborate in learning and practicing four key skillsSummarizingQuestioningClarifyingPredictingDo you see this method in your schooling?
66 Jerome Bruner Elaborated on Piaget and Vygotsky’s ideas Like Vygotsky, stressed social interaction in developmentUnlike Piaget (who thought language was a tool which reflects our cognitive structures), believed that language can speed up cognitive developmentModes of representation- a way of thinking about knowledge at different ages
67 Jerome Bruner Bruner 2:30 Impact of Bruner's thinking According to Jerome Bruner, instructors should try to encourage students to discover principles by themselves.Instructors and students should engage in active dialog.Instructors should try to translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner’s current state of understanding.Spiral manner- curriculum presented in a manner where students build on what they have learned (spiraling)Do you see this in your educational process?
68 Theories of Cognitive Development Look for a way to remember details of these theoriesMade a mnemonic perhapsPut the ideas into your own wordsMake comparisons/contrasts of details of theoriesRecall key termsYou can do it!
69 Sigmund Freud Psychosexual Stages of Development OralAnalPhallicLatentGenital
78 Diana Baumrind Parenting Styles The most heavily research aspect of parenting has been how parents seek to control their children.Investigators have identified three parenting stylesAuthoritarianPermissiveAuthoritative ****(Too hard, too soft, just right)
79 Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Stages of Death and Dying Stages of GriefDAB
81 Children and DeathKubler Ross and children3 mins
82 Have you got all of this? Figure out a way to learn all of the terms Figure out what is the best way for you to remember all of the theoriesExpect a Free response question to apply theory to a new situation(See sample FRQ)