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Chapter 7: Settings for Development: Home and School.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7: Settings for Development: Home and School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7: Settings for Development: Home and School

2 Settings for Development: Home  Two-parent Families  Traditional  Blended  Adoptive, Gay, Foster, and Grandparent- headed families  One-parent Families  Typically mother- headed

3 Keys to Thriving: Home Setting  Secure attachment  Goodness-of-fit  Parenting styles: Diana Baumrind  Classified by two dimensions:  Parental Responsiveness  Provide “structure,” or rules

4 Baumrind’s Parenting Styles  Authoritative  Authoritarian  Permissive  Rejecting- neglecting

5  Good Parenting also includes:  consistency  Scaffold learning  Relationships

6 Developmental Systems Approach  A variety of influences shape development.  Developmentalists agree:  Provide best possible environment.  Provide sensitive caregiving.  Provide proper discipline (avoid power assertion).

7 Resilient Children  Qualities  Superior emotional regulation skills  Outgoing personality  Special talent  High self-efficacy and optimistic world view  Strong faith or sense of meaning in life  At least one warm, loving relationship  Good “genes”: easy temperament, superior intellectual and social skills

8 What Do Psychologists Suggest?  Considerable debate  Some stress that physical punishment is never appropriate.  Others stress that mild spanking is not detrimental.  NEVER hit an infant.  When you use physical punishment, accompany the action with a verbal explanation.  Use other techniques such as “time out” or remove the child from the scene.

9 Child Abuse/Maltreatment  Any act that seriously endangers a child’s physical or emotional well-being  Categories  Physical abuse  Neglect  Emotional abuse  Sexual abuse  Risk Factors  Parents’ personality problems  Life stress accompanied by social isolation  Children’s vulnerabilities  “Difficult child”  Medical problems  Premature infant

10 Divorce  Global studies: Children of divorce are more at risk for academic, social, physical, and mental difficulties. (Note: Some have no problems.)  Contributing Factors  Economic stresses of single- parent household  Difficulties and transitions experienced both before and during divorce

11 School: Socioeconomic Status and School Readiness  Economic status has a strong influence on children’s readiness and chances for academic success at start of school careers. Socioeconomic status and kindergartners’ scores on tests of readiness for reading and math

12 Intelligence and IQ Tests  Intelligence Tests  Given individually  Designed to predict general academic potential  Measure only cognitive abilities  Achievement Tests  Given to groups of children  Measure knowledge in various subjects  WISC  Standard intelligence test used in childhood  Verbal Scale (answer questions)  Performance Scale (manipulate materials)  Variety of subtests

13 IQ Test Accuracy  Reliability  Test scores must be fairly similar when taken more than once (relatively stable over time).  Scores may shift when experiencing life stress (e.g., parents’ divorce).  Validity  A test measures what it is supposed to measure.  IQ tests are valid: good predictors of academic performance.


15 Bell-Shaped Curve: WISC  68% (68 th percentile) scores between 85 and 115  95% scores between 70 and 130  IQ 130 = top 2% for age group (Gifted)  Mentally Retarded  IQ of 70 or below with evidence of deficits in learning abilities  Specific Learning Disability  Diagnosed when IQ test score is much higher than the child’s performance on achievement tests


17 Robert Sternberg’s Intelligence  Successful Intelligence  The optimal form of cognition, involving a balance of the following intelligences:  Analytic (academic)  Creative (producing novel ideas or innovative work)  Practical (common sense or “street smarts”

18 Howard Gardner: Multiple Intelligences  The principle that there are eight separate types of intelligence  Verbal and Mathematical  Spatial skills  Kinesthetic abilities  Interpersonal talents  Intrapersonal skills  Musical skills  Naturalist talent  Existential (spiritual)

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