Presentation on theme: "Europe Study Guide for CRCT. Environmental Problems in Europe 1)Acid Rain in Germany Acid Rain develops when pollution mixes with water particles in the."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental Problems in Europe 1)Acid Rain in Germany Acid Rain develops when pollution mixes with water particles in the atmosphere. Most of the pollution that causes the acid rain in Germany comes from neighboring countries. Acid Rain has damaged the Black Forest in Germany. Trees are dying, statues and buildings are being damaged, pollutes rivers, and harms wildlife.
2) Nuclear disaster at Chernobyl, Ukraine 1986. The nuclear plant at Chernobyl exploded. The entire country of Ukraine and one million citizens were exposed to high levels of radiation. The cities around the Ukraine had to be abandoned because of the damage to soil, wildlife, and water. The Ukraine is now a nuclear free nation. However, many people still continue to be affected by the radiation.
3) Air Pollution in the United Kingdom Smog is a major issue in the city of London. Smog is air pollution causes by sunlight acting on gases from pollution. It is “dirty fog”. The Great Smog- 1952. For four days the smog was so thick that Londoners couldn’t see what was in front of them. About 3,000 people died in those four days. Today the UK has smokeless zones. They are using cleaner forms of energy, and have improved cars so that they produce less exhaust.
Location, Climate, and Natural Resources of the UK Location: an island nation off the coast of, Europe. Made of up 4 nations: England,, Northern Ireland, Wales, and Scotland. Its location has helped the UK become an international trading partner and banking center. UK’s number one trading partner is the US. Climate: mild climate with rainfall throughout the year. Warmed by the Gulf Stream causing mild winters. Natural Resources: Fishing, Minerals, Arable Land (over half of the land is used for farming)
Location, Climate, and Natural Resources of Russia Location: Russia spans two continents Climate: Has only 2 seasons- Winter and Summer. 73% of Russians live in European Russia, where the weather is harsh, but not as severe as Asian Russia Natural Resources: Has many resources: Lumber, Gold, Iron Ore, and Aluminum. The Volga is the largest river in Europe. Over one-half of Russia’s cities are located along it. A source of hydroelectric power and serves as a waterway for transportation.
Location, Climate, and Natural Resources of Germany Location: about the size of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama combined. It is located in the center of Europe, which makes it a crossroads of travel and trade. Climate: kept warm from the Gulf Stream. Western Germany has a milder climate because it is closer to the Atlantic Ocean. Eastern Germany is much colder because of its distance from the ocean. Natural Resources: Timber, Arable land, coal, iron ore.
Location, Climate, and Natural Resources of Italy Location- Long, boot-shaped peninsula, surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. About twice the size of Georgia. Location makes it a crossroads for trade with access to Africa, Asia, and Europe. Climate- Mediterranean Climate. Temperature is comfortable most of the year because of the Mediterranean Sea and warm air from the Sahara in Africa. Natural Resources- few mineral resources. Arable land (growing grapes and olives), and fishing
Comparing the languages of German, English, Russian, French and Italian European languages are divided into 3 main categories: Germanic, Romance, and Slavic Germanic- English and German 20% of Europeans speak these languages. Most live in NW and Central Europe. Romance- French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese. Spoken in the South and Western sections of Europe. Comes from Latin, which was spoken in the ancient Roman Empire. Both Germanic and Romance languages use the Roman Alphabet
Comparing the languages of German, English, Russian, French and Italian Slavic- Russian. Slavic languages are spoken in Central and Eastern Europe. Does not always use the Roman Alphabet. Most use the Cyrillic alphabet, which is similar to the alphabet used by the Ancient Greeks. For example “I love social studies.” Looks like this in the Russian language “Я люблю социальные изучения.” There are hundreds of languages spoken in Europe. Because of this, students are required to learn at least two languages other than their native language.
Europe’s Major Religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Judaism Founder: Abraham (about 2000 BC) Sacred (Holy) Text: Torah (the Old Testament of the Bible) Followers are called: Jews Number of Followers: 15 million
Europe’s Major Religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Christianity Founder: Jesus Christ (about 30 AD) Sacred Text: Bible Followers are called: Christians Number of followers: 2.1 billion
Europe’s Major Religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Islam Founder: Muhammad (about 610 AD) Sacred Text: Koran Followers called: Muslims Number of followers: 1.3 billion
Literacy Rate and Standard of Living Literacy- the ability to read and write Literacy Rate- the percentage of people in a country who can read and write GDP (Gross Domestic Product)- the total amount of goods and services produced in a country in one year. Most countries with a high literacy rate also enjoy a high standard of living and a high GDP. In Europe, Russia is an exception. Russia has a high literacy rate, but a low standard of living and low GDP. The Russian government has always required education, but most people do not have jobs and live in poverty.
Government of the UK The United Kingdom has a Confederation Government, a Parliamentary Democracy, and a Constitutional Monarchy. Head of State: Queen Elizabeth II Head of Government (Chief Executive)- Prime Minister. The PM is the leader of the political party with the most votes. He is asked by the Queen to be the Prime Minister. He is not directly elected by the citizens, but is chosen by the MPs. Legislative/ Law Making Body: Parliament. Parliament is bicameral (has 2 houses). The House of Commons, and the House of Lords. Members of the House of Commons are called MP’s (Members of Parliament) and are elected by citizens. Members of the House of Lords are appointment by the monarch or elected by the House.
UK government- continued The UK is also a member of a confederation. The Commonwealth of Nations is a confederation made up of former British colonies that are now independent nations. Membership is voluntary and countries may withdraw at any time. Members of the Commonwealth work together on common problems. However, other Commonwealth nations cannot force one member to do something against their will.
Government of Germany Germany has a Federal and Parliamentary Democracy system of Government. Head of State: President- role is symbolic and ceremonial. Chosen by Parliament Head of Government: Chancellor (similar to a Prime Minister). Chosen by the Bundestag. Legislature: Bicameral Parliament. Made up of the Bundestag and the Bundesrat.
Government of the Russian Federation Russia has a Parliamentary Democracy and a Federal form of government Head of State: President- elected by the people. Has the power to disband the legislature Head of Government: Prime Minister- chosen by the President Legislature: Parliament divided into two houses. Federation Council (2 representatives appointed from each state) and State Duma (450 members, chosen by the people).
European Union 27 member nations Purpose: to work together for advantages that would be out of their reach if each were working alone. Working together gives more opportunity for world trade and increases GDP of member nations when combined as one economic group Currency- The Euro. Not every member nations uses the Euro- the UK is an example The EU is a free trade zone- similar to NAFTA
Comparing the Economies of the UK, Germany, and Russia CommandMarket CubaRussia Germany UK US (Ruble) (Euro) (Pound) Remember that there is no pure market or pure command economies. They fall on the economic scale, making them mixed because they have characteristics of both.
European Empires The Crusades (1096-1272) Wars sponsored by the Pope (leader of the Roman Catholic Church) to capture the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims. Important because it exposed European soldiers to new goods and ideas from the Middle East, and Asia. By the early 1400s, there were many dangerous trade routes across land to Asia, and most included stops in the Italian ports of Venice and Genoa. Here merchants would mark up the prices to goods before selling them to the rest of Europe. Countries realized that they had to find their own routes to the East.
European Empires Portugal Wanted to find a route around Africa into the Indian Ocean. Also wanted to spread Christianity along the western coast of Africa. Prince Henry the Navigator- son of the Portuguese king. Studied navigation and cartography (map making). Built a school so others could study as well. His efforts advanced what Europeans knew of these subjects.
Portugal- continued Established the earliest European empire Bartolomeu Dias reached the southern tip of Africa and named it the Cape of Good Hope Vasco da Gama was the first to sail around the Cape to the Indian Ocean By 1571 Portugal had forts and trading posts stretching from Japan, to the Pacific Island, and Africa Largest colony was Brazil, located in the New World
Spain 1492- Christopher Columbus, an Italian, was given 3 ships and men to find a passage across the Atlantic to Asia. He actually discovered the New World (North and South America) One of the largest empires in history Conquered the Aztec and Inca. Empire stretched from the southwestern US, the Caribbean, and the entire South American continent (except Brazil). Also had colonies in Asia, the Philippines
England In the beginning, England was only one of 3 countries that shared the same island (Wales and Scotland were the other 2 countries). By the 1700s the three were united as Great Britain. The largest empire in the history of the World. So large that “The Sun never sets on the British Empire”. Controlled colonies in Canada, Australia, India, much of eastern Africa, and islands across the world. Colonies of Britain become independent after WWII.
France Another of Europe’s dominate empires. During the reign of Napoleon I, France dominated much of the European continent. Colonized islands in the Caribbean (Haiti), the Indian Ocean, the Pacific, and North Atlantic. Canada was originally a French colony. Much of the Southern US and west to the Mississippi was also colonized by the French- before loosing it to Britain during the French and Indian War.
Scramble for Africa and WW I Countries in Europe wanted more land. Between 1885 and 1910, European countries divided the continent of Africa among themselves. The Industrial Revolution was occurring, factories in Europe were producing goods cheaper and faster. Natural resources were being depleted. Countries needed raw materials and a new market for their goods.
Nationalism also played a part. European nations showed national pride by competing for colonies in Africa. Also, Europeans viewed themselves as better than the people of Africa. Countries felt it necessary to “civilize” people in other regions of the world. Missionaries spreading Christianity to natives made colonization seem less offensive to Europeans.
At this time, European countries were also scrambling for Asia as well. Nationalism (love of one’s country) and militarism (using strong armies or threats of war) were on the rise. Countries signed treaties agreeing to come to the aid of one another. In 1914, a member of the Austrian-Hungary royal family was assassinated in Serbia. Causing all of the alliances in Europe to come into play. Germany declares war on Russia and France.
Britain joins with Russia and France by declaring war on Germany. The Great War had begun. Allied Powers: Britain, France, Russia (US joins later) Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (Turkey), Bulgaria, Germany. Though most of the fighting was in Europe, there were also battles in colonies around the world (esp. Africa). War lasts until 1918. An estimated 10 million people died. It was called “the war to end all wars”. Just 20 years later, WW II begins and the Great War becomes known as WWI
Russian Revolution Prior to 1917, Russia was ruled by Czars. The Czar was an autocratic, one absolute ruler. Nicholas II was the last Czar of Russia Russia was not doing well in WWI. The troops were unprepared and not well supplied. Citizens in Russia’s cities were rioting. The people demanded more rights as citizens. People were also starving due to a food shorting. Those working in factories had terrible working conditions.
The military could not and later would not, keep the peace. The Czar and his family were arrested on March 15, 1917. A new government was set up by communist leader, Vladimir Lenin. Lenin renames the country the Soviet Union and establishes a communist dictatorship. Communist countries typically have command economies. All decisions are made by the government. The government owns all land and resources. Everyone is “equal”, economically speaking.
Lenin later orders the murder of the Czar and his family in July 1918. The new Soviet government signs a peace treaty with Germany, giving up a large amount of land that was good for farming and had many natural resources. The Soviet Union would remain a communist country until 1991, when it later became democratic Russia.
The First Treaty of Versailles At the end of WWI, world leaders gathered at the Palace of Versailles outside of Paris to write a treaty officially ending WWI. The main purpose of the Treaty was the punish Germany Germany lost important territory and all of its colonies. German Emperor Wilhelm II was put on trial for war crimes Germany had to pay reparations (money) to Britain and France to help rebuild parts of Europe that were damaged. Reduced the size of Germany’s army and navy.
World Wide Depression After WWI, most countries experienced a time of prosperity. In the US, we called it “The Roaring Twenties” In the fall of 1929, the US stock market crashed. The price of stocks dropped drastically. People realized they were in danger of loosing EVERYTHING. People began selling stocks as fast as they could. Because everyone was selling, and not buying, prices continued to fall.
Businesses could no longer sell goods because people had no money, or they were scared to spend what little money they did have. This meant that business could not pay their debts and workers began loosing jobs Businesses around the world traded with the US. When the US stopped buying goods, the economies of other countries began to suffer and experienced depression. The Depression lasted until WWII
Rise of Nazism Like other European countries, Germany was devastated because of WWI. 2 ½ million died, 4 million were wounded. Industries and farms had been destroyed. Bridges, roads and railroads needed to be rebuilt. The government was unable to meet the needs of its people and pay for needed repairs because of reparations in the Treaty of Versailles. Germany fell into a depression like the rest of the world.
Germans blamed the government for not solving their problems. Adolf Hitler was a member of the National Socialist Party, the NAZI party for short Hitler promised Germans that he could fix their problems. He blamed the Treaty of Versailles. He also blamed Jewish citizens, claiming that they controlled all of the banks and money- they were the reason why Germans couldn’t get jobs
Hitler was chosen as Chancellor in 1933. He quickly passed laws giving him more power- making him a dictator. He began to build up the military. He repaired roads, bridges and railroads. He opened factories, putting people to work making weapons. He was completely breaking the agreement of the Treaty. The Germany economy improved. People lost most of their civil rights, but decided that food was more important than rights.
Anyone who spoke out against Hitler or the Nazis were arrested or murdered. In 1936, he sent troops into former German territory lost because of the Treaty. By 1938 Germany controlled Austria and Czechoslovakia. European countries did nothing, hoping to avoid another war. 1939- Hitler invades Poland. Britain and France finally declare war and WWII begins
The Holocaust As part of his plan to take over the world, Hitler began killing every Jew under Nazi control Jews were imprisoned in certain areas of cities (Ghettos), forced to wear arm bands identifying them as Jews, and were separated from their families Built concentration camps. Jews were sent by cattle cars to camps across Europe. As many as 2,000 Jews could be killed at one time in the camps
Thousands of Jews died from forced labor, exposure to the elements, and starvation. By the end of the War, 6 million Jews were dead. This doesn’t include other groups targeted by Hitler: political prisoners, mentally ill, handicapped, and disabled. The Holocaust was Genocide( the planned killing of a race of people). After the war, many Jews wanted to leave Europe and return to their ancient homeland in the Middle East.
The United Nations divides Palestine into two states: An Arab state and a Jewish state, Israel. Israel officially opened its boarders to Jews worldwide in 1948.
The Cold War Began in 1945. It was a period of distrust and misunderstanding between the Soviet Union and its former allies in the West- especially the US. Soviet Union believed in a powerful central government that controlled the economy (command) and the government. The US and western Europe believed that businesses should be privately owned with little or no government involvement (market) and that a democratic government was best.
The Soviet Union placed most eastern European countries under communist control. This was the Eastern Bloc The US and western European nations became known as the Western Bloc The two were separated by an imaginary line called the Iron Curtain At the end of WWII, the 2 nd Treaty of Versailles split Germany into 4 sections, with the US, France, Britain, and the Soviet Union each controlling a section
In 1948, the US, Britain, and France wanted to unite Germany, but the Soviets disagreed. Causing more tension between the East and West. The 3 sections became united as the country of West Germany. The Soviet area became East Germany. Even the capital city of Berlin, which was located in East Germany was divided into a communist section and a democratic section.. Divided by the Berlin Wall, which was built in 1961.
Both sides felt that the other was trying to control the world. Both sides were evenly matched and became Super Powers People feared another world war, or a nuclear war. As the Cold War continued, countries around the world begin joining sides. Countries that were part of the Soviet Union began to revolt, drawing government attention away from the Cold War as they were trying to put down revolts.
By 1985 the economy of the Soviet Union was so unstable that leader Mikhail Gorbachev reduced government control of the economy and gave citizens more freedom. The Soviet Union was beginning to fall apart. This improved relations with the US and Eastern Bloc countries demanded freedom In 1989 the Berlin Wall was torn down, and Germany began to unify. Areas of the Soviet Union that had once been independent countries began gaining their independence. Many countries were created from the former Soviet Union- Russia is the largest.