2What impact did European colonization and the African slave trade have on Latin American ethnic groups? *Slavery helped to build the countries in Latin America. *Brought by ships to the Americas, forced to work on plantation or in mines, and businesses depended on slavery. *Intermarriage of people from different countries resulted in diverse cultures.
3What languages are spoken in Latin America? Spanish and Portuguese
4Where are these languages spoken? Spanish: Central and South America, Mexico & Caribbean Islands Portuguese: Brazil
5What influence did the Spanish and Portuguese have on the language and religions of Latin America? The Europeans spread their language across Latin America. Spain and Portugal paid for missionaries to go to the new world: Roman Catholic Convert the people to Christianity
6GovernmentFederal – Power is divided between the central government and small divisions, such as states. Unitary – A central government operates all levels of government in the country (Has all power) Examples: Cuba & Bolivia, Great Britain & France *A leader has the power to choose a governor or mayor of a region or town
7Confederation – voluntary association of states or countries in which they join together in order to solve problems or provide for their people. Political units control their own laws. Example: US Articles of Confederation, European Union
8Citizen Participation Oligarchic – The power is in the hands of a few. Autocratic – The power is in the hands of one person. Democratic – The power is in the hands of the people.
9Types of DemocraciesParliamentary & Presidential Venn Diagram: Alike: (1)Citizens elect lawmakers (2)Leader heads the military & runs the government
10Parliamentary - Different *Parliament selects Prime Minister *Prime Minister: leader, heads parliament(lawmaking body), can dissolve Parliament *May have a head of state with little power: king/queen MPs(Members of Parliament) can elect new Prime Minister
11Presidential - Different *President: leader, elected, does not make laws, head of state, chief executive *Legislature: lawmaking body *President & legislature serve a fixed amount of time Legislature is to parliament as a president is to prime minister.
12Forms of LeadershipBrazil: President Mexico: President Cuba: President Canada: Prime Minister & Monarchy United Kingdom: Prime Minister & Monarchy Germany: Chancellor Australia: Prime Minister & Governor General (Queen’s representative) Russia: President & Prime Minister
13How the leader is selected Brazil: election (4yr. Term) Mexico: election (6yr. Term) Cuba: Appointed by the National Assembly of People’s Power Canada: MPs chose United Kingdom: MPs chose prime minister & head of state passed down Germany: from the Bundestag the chancellor is elected
14How the leader is selected Australia: leader of political party with most votes elected prime minister Russia: People elect president, president appoints the prime minister who is voted on by the State Duma
15Role of the citizen in terms of voting rights and personal freedoms Brazil: yr. old & over 70 may vote, yr. old required to vote Mexico: 18 yrs. old or older Cuba: 16 yrs. old or older Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, & Russia: 18 yrs. Old or older
16EconomicsTraditional: Who decides what goods are produced? Customs and habits Who decides how goods are produced: Who decided for whom goods are produced? The people are handed down jobs generation to generation. People are depended on to fulfill their role.
17CommandWho decides what goods are produced? The government Who decides how goods are produced? Based on quotas the government decides Who decided for whom goods are produced? Government expects the workers to meet the quotas; this could produce shortages
18MarketWho decides what goods are produced? Businesses or farms decide what it wants to produce. Who decides how goods are produced? Business/farm owners Who decided for whom goods are produced? Consumers decide because it is based on supply and demand.
19Benefits & Barriers of Voluntary Trade Tariffs: A tax on imports Quotas: A limit placed on the number of imports that may enter a country. Embargoes: A government order stopping trade with another country to put pressure on the government of that other country. Specialization: the division of labor; work is divided into parts for workers, factories, or countries to become expert at producing certain goods.
20Currency Exchanges: when one money is truned into another type of money GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT Gross: consisting of an overall total exclusive of deductions Domestic: relating or originating within a country
21Product: something produced GDP: The total value of the goods and services produced by the people of a nation during a year not including the value of income earned in foreign countries.