BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 3 What is post-shredding? LIGHT FRACTION “FLUFF” HEAVY FRACTION “DIRTY METALS” FERROUS SCRAP
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 4 Light fraction properties
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 5 Heavy fraction properties
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 6 Light fraction treatment ASR or “FLUFF” TEXTILES AND LIGHT PLASTICS HEAVY PLASTICS METAL MIX SAND AND FINES MEDIUM SIZE INNERT MATERIALS
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 7 Heavy fraction treatment HEAVY FRACTION
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 8 Technologies 1Cement Kilns 2Citron 3Galloo 4REA-Distillation 5Reshment 6Sicon-VW 7TwinRec (EBARA)
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 9 Cement kilns INFORMATION PROVIDERWASTE TREATEDLEVELS REACHED Cement kilns association www.oficemen.es Light fraction and heavy fraction w/o metals 5-10% recycling 90-100% recovery MATERIALS OBTAINED Clinker and gases DESCRIPTION OF THE TECHNOLOGY After milling of raw materials (limestone, marl, clay, slate, etc.) the following compounds are obtained: calcic carbonate, silicon oxide, aluminium oxide and iron oxide. These compounds are fed in rotatory kilns at 1450 ºC, and then abruptly cooled to obtain clínker. Milling of clínker with other components produce different types of cement. The system includes a cyclone tower for heat interchange in which material is preheated. The calcination is improved precalcinator is added. INSTALLED CAPACITY There are almost 40 plants in Spain but only about 19 of them have authorization for using alternative fuels obtained from waste
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 10 Cement kiln process
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 11 Citron INFORMATION PROVIDERWASTE TREATEDLEVELS REACHED CITRON www.citron.ch Light fraction50% recycling 50% recovery MATERIALS OBTAINED Metals, Mineral products, Gas, ashes DESCRIPTION OF THE TECHNOLOGY The process used by CITRON consists of a rotatory furnace with reducing atmosphere but with a series of burners that produce an oxidating zone that causes that the residual organic part is destroyed before taking the gas to a humid cleaner. The process serves to volatilize some heavy metals, to take it to the gaseous phase to disturb organic compounds 1200ºC so that the residual ashes can serve as feed material in the cement plants INSTALLED CAPACITY A plant in Rogerville exists (France) that treats 120,000 Tn/year which 20,000 are of shredder light fraction.
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 12 Citron process
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 13 Galloo INFORMATION PROVIDERWASTE TREATEDLEVELS REACHED GALLOO GROUP www.galloo.com Light fraction15-45% recycling 15% recovery MATERIALS OBTAINED Mineral fraction(40%) light fraction (30%), heavy caloric fraction (15%) plastic fraction (10%) Rest (5%) DESCRIPTION OF THE TECHNOLOGY By different mechanical processes the plants of Galloo Group obtain different fractions that are used in other industries. The process has been developed in a way that, as it has been mentioned above, allowe to obtain five different fractions that in some cases are used in other processes INSTALLED CAPACITY The more specialized plants are the one of Galloo plastics in Halluin (France) 100,000 tn/año and Galloo metals in Menen (Belgium) 100,000 tn/año.
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 14 Galloo process
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 15 REA (Distillation) INFORMATION PROVIDERWASTE TREATEDLEVELS REACHED Reciclados Ecológicos Andaluces S.L. Heavy fraction, light fraction and tyres 70% recycling 30% recovery MATERIALS OBTAINED Crude oil, Carbon powder, Steel. DESCRIPTION OF THE TECHNOLOGY In the process, the wastes are mixed in the distillator along with used oil, that is warmed up in its external part with hot air, coming from the boiler of biomass. The dissolution-distillation process is carried out in two steps. In first the dissolution in a hot oil bathtub is realised, so that temperature facilitates the desvulcanization of rubbers and the gradual dissolution of plastics. The second step is the distillation itself that produces the crude oil and the black carbon liberating the steel from the tyres. INSTALLED CAPACITY A plant in Aznalcollar is expected to start operating on July 2008 with capacity between 5,000 and 10,000 tn/year. The strategy of expansion of the company is to have 9 similar plants in 2009..
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 16 REA-Distillation process
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 17 Reshment INFORMATION PROVIDERWASTE TREATEDLEVELS REACHED Swiss Auto-Rec Foundation www.stiftung-autorecycling.ch Light fraction54% recycling 43% recovery MATERIALS OBTAINED Metals, Vitrified granulate, energy, ashes DESCRIPTION OF THE TECHNOLOGY The process used by Reshment is similar to the Twin-Rec Ebara process although it is designed to work with a mixture approximately 50% RLF 50% of another waste with similar heating value. The main differences are in the atmosphere of the cyclonal combustion chamber of the Reshment process which is reductant and that uses a mechanical pre-treatment of the fluff before introducing it in the cyclone and not a thermal process as in Ebara. INSTALLED CAPACITY There are plants in operation in Japan and Switzerland had approved the construction of a plant but the cost was too high for the 155,000 ton/year dimension needed.
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 18 Reshment process
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 19 Sicon-VW INFORMATION PROVIDERWASTE TREATEDLEVELS REACHED SICon GmbH www.sicontechnology.com Light fraction82,5% recycling 0% recovery MATERIALS OBTAINED Shredder plastic granulate, High PVC plastics fraction, Shredder fibres, Shredder sand, Fracción Metálica DESCRIPTION OF THE TECHNOLOGY The technology essentially is based on the crushing and the mechanical separation of the shredder light fraction. The process of Sicon-VW is based on the generation of flows of materials through specific treatment and the refining of the residues of the shredder with the aim of being able to use the materials obtained in other industries like secondary raw materials replacing the primary ones. INSTALLED CAPACITY There is a plant at Belgian Scrap Terminal (BST) located in Kallo (Belgium) for 20,000 ton/year. In addition Netherlands and Austria (Enns) are building two industrial plants for 100,000 ton/year that should be running in 2008.
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 20 Sicon-VW process
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 21 Twinrec-EBARA INFORMATION PROVIDERWASTE TREATEDLEVELS REACHED EBARA www.ebara.ch Light fraction40% recycling 50% recovery MATERIALS OBTAINED Metals, Granulated Glass, Ashes DESCRIPTION OF THE TECHNOLOGY The process of Ebara TwinRec is a combination of two existing technologies as gasification in fluidised bed furnace and vitrification of ashes in a cyclonal combustion chamber at high temperature. The furnace is fed by a mixture on ASR and ashes coming from plants treating MSW but the technology has been proven with ASR and is perfectly applicable with mixtures of residues if they have a calorific power inferior similar to the one of the ASR. INSTALLED CAPACITY There are 17 lines that use this technology in Japan but 2 important tests with light fraction have been carried out: one in Aomori (Japan) with 420 Tn and another one in Baden (Germany) with 400 Tn.
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 22 Twinrec-EBARA process
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 23 Other technologies have failed Due to different reasons (undefinition of the recycling definitions, lack of regulations, lack of profit, stricter legislations, etc. many technologies have failed in the last years. Some examples are: - SALYP - Thermoselect - Catalytic processes - Thermolisis - etc.
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 24 Commission Report on targets THE CONCLUSION IS THAT THE TARGETS MUST BE MANTAINED BECAUSE THEY GENERATE BENEFITS BOTH ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL. THE COMMISSION WILL PROMOTE ECO- INNOVATION IN THE SECTOR MAINLY IN INNOVATIVE SHREDDINGTECHNOLOGIES AND PLASTIC RECYCLING
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 25 The actual situation All Member States are in a similar situation with regards the levels achieved. Post shredding technologies are very promising but there is not enough capacity installed (see “A study to examine the benefits of the End of Life Vehicles Directive and the costs and benefits of a revision of the 2015 targets for recycling, re-use and recovery under the ELV Directive”, GHK / BIOIS, May 2006. on the Commission’s webpage)
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 26 The recycling definition The definitions of reuse, recycling, energy recovery, elimination, etc. are not clear enough and it is necessary to be more precise DEFINITION PROPOSED BY EP: “'recycling' means the reprocessing of materials or substances in wastes through a production process in such a way that they produce or are incorporated in new products, materials or substances whether for the original or other purposes. It includes reprocessing of organic material, but does not include, inter alia, energy recovery, conversion for use as a fuel, processes involving combustion or use as a source of energy, including chemical energy, or backfilling operations; ; INITIAL COM PROPOSAL SUPPORTED BY INDUSTRY: recycling’ means the recovery of waste into products, materials or substances whether for the original or other purposes. It does not include energy recovery; Only a broad and consistent recycling definition, as proposed by the EU Commission, will create legal certainty and thereby would ensure continued development, investment and operation of innovative and eco- efficient recycling plants
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 27 The recycling definition Independent and externally reviewed LCA studies show that the affected recycling plants have excellent environmental performance, because they have the technological means to save valuable scarce resources. This means significant savings of CO2 and other environmentally detrimental emissions. DG ENV has recognized this activity in its awarding the SiCon process with the European business award for the Environment. Some examples for endangered investments of SMEs: By exclusion of “conversion for use as a fuel”: Some activities, that are on the way, exploring the possibilities of transferring waste-derived fractions in a CO2-efficient manner into fuel (Waste to liquid: Diesel,…) By exclusion of ”processes involving combustion or use as a source of energy, including chemical energy”: Bernegger/Voest in Austria and future Sicon plants in the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Germany and under evaluation in other countries as well as SVZ (methanol production from waste, Germany).
BEST PRACTICES ON ELVs MANAGEMENTValencia 12-13 June 28 SIGRAUTO’s activities SIGRAUTO is also working on other technologies that seem could be a great solution for the shredder residues. Some trials have already been made and further work is needed before making any decision.