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Part 4. 2 Recycling of composite materials MSK 20110211 ETEAM.

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Presentation on theme: "Part 4. 2 Recycling of composite materials MSK 20110211 ETEAM."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 4

2 2 Recycling of composite materials MSK ETEAM

3 3 Definitions Recycling = Reuse + Recovery Reuse = Reuse of products in similar or different applications Recovery = material recovery + energy recovery MSK ETEAM

4 4 RECYCLING CLASSIFICATIONS PRIMARYREUSE AS A NEW PRODUCT WITH SIMILAR PROPERTIES SECONDARYREUSE AS A NEW PRODUCT WITH LESS DEMANDING PROPERTIES TERTIARYCONVERTING WASTE INTO BASIC CHEMICALS BY PYROLYSIS, GASIFICATION OR HYDROLYSIS QUATERNARYWASTE INCINERATION TO RECOVER ENERGY CONTENT AS HEAT Source: Rusch. K., Recycling of Automotive SMC - the Current Picture, 48th Annual Conference, SPI 1993 MSK ETEAM

5 5 DRIVING FORCES FOR THE RECYCLING OF COMPOSITE WASTE 1.Landfill disposal will no longer be allowed because of legislation 2.Regulatory and economic constrains are directing the waste management 3.Customer and public demands MSK ETEAM

6 6 COMPOSITE WASTE TYPES 1. PRODUCTION WASTE AND REJECTED PRODUCTS SHORT LIFE-TIME EASY TO COLLECT AND SORT NO CONTAMINATION 2. END-OF-LIFE DISCHARGED PRODUCTS CONTAINING COMPOSITE COMPONENTS MEDIUM LIFE-TIME COLLECTING, DISMANTLING, SORTING AND CLEANING CONTAMINATION POSSIBLE TRANSPORTED WITH OTHER WASTE COMPONENTS 3. END-OF-LIFE DISCHARGED SINGLE COMPOSITE PRODUCTS LONG LIFE-TIME STRUCTURE DOWNSIZING NEEDED FOR TRANSPORTATION MSK ETEAM

7 7 Typical production waste 7 MSK ETEAM

8 8 METHODS FOR RECYCLING OF COMPOSITE WASTE Material recovery: Mechanical particle size reduction of the cured composite with direct reuse of the resulting ground fractions Energy recovery: Incineration of the composite waste together with other fuels Material recovery with energy recovery: Energy recovery of matrix by incineration, reuse of inorganic ash in suitable products Chemical recycling: Decomposition of the matrix resin through hydrolysis or pyrolysis to basic raw materials MSK ETEAM

9 9 MATERIAL RECOVERY OF COMPOSITE WASTE 1.Mechanically ground fractions of recycled composites are used in new products 2.Recycled composite is mixed with virgin material as filler or reinforcement 3.Up to % by weight of recycled fractions can be used in the virgin material MSK ETEAM

10 10 REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIAL RECYCLING 1.Logistic system for collecting, sorting and dismantling 2.Quality system for producing ground fractions free from contamination 3.Feasible process technology and applications for recycled materials MSK ETEAM

11 11 Dismantling of waste products – one example MSK ETEAM

12 12 Recycling of automotive composite components Mechanical recycling of SMC parts from the automotive industry was done commercially by ERCOM in Germany during , but this has now ended Over 2 million parts have been recycled Potential for increase of SMC recycling rate (currently < 1 % of SMC production in Europe) Cost of recycled SMC higher than virgin SMC at present volumes MSK ETEAM

13 13 ERCOM - a concept for material recycling MSK ETEAM

14 14MSK ETEAM

15 15MSK ETEAM

16 16 CASE II: CONCEPT-BOAT CONTAINING 20 % RECYLED MATERIALS BASED ON TOTAL WEIGHT DEMONSTRATOR FROM 1990 Layer of recycled laminate between layers of virgin laminate Ground, recycled fractions are mixed with virgin material Application by special spray-up equipment Cost and performance similar as for conventional boats MSK ETEAM

17 17 CASE III. CONCEPTS FOR MATERIAL RECYCLING IN JAPAN Mobile incinerator for GRP waste MSK ETEAM

18 18 Collection of used leisure boats in Finland leisure boats in Finland Finnboat rf and Kuusakoski Oy 4 collection points in southwest Finland Collection June – August 2005 Fragmentation at waste collection site MSK ETEAM

19 19 MSK Foto: Aulis Nikkola MSK ETEAM

20 20 Foto: Aulis Nikkola MSK ETEAM

21 21 MSK Foto: Aulis Nikkola MSK ETEAM

22 22 Conclusions and experiences 170 boats were collected A very large part wood or partially wood containing boats The fragmentation gives relatively large parts which must be fragmented additionally MSK ETEAM

23 23 ENERGY RECOVERY BY INCINERATION The most important replacement for landfill Energy recovery is generally accepted in Europe Is already implemented at several incineration plants for household waste in the Nordic countries Energy content of composite waste depends on the amount of inorganic fibres and fillers Incombustible residue from the glass reinforcement and the filler MSK ETEAM

24 24 Energy content depends on the filler and reinforcement content in the composite Ash content and heat content for different composites MSK ETEAM

25 25 Fragmentation before incineration 25 MSK ETEAM

26 26 Residue from incineration 26 MSK ETEAM

27 27 Recycling of wind turbine blades by a combination of energy recocery and material recovery ReFiber Danmark MSK ETEAM

28 28 From wind turbine blade to insulating material MSK ETEAM

29 29 RECOVERY OF GLASS FIBRES FROM THE INCINERATION PROCESS Source: University of Nottingham, UK, 1998 MSK ETEAM

30 30 Proposed plant Separated fibres from the incineration process can be used to make moulding compounds, with a recycled fibre content up to 50 wt-% Source: University of Nottingham, UK, 1998 MSK ETEAM

31 31 Controlled incineration leaving reinforcement intact 31 MSK ETEAM

32 32 Green Label A European recycling concept since 2003 Co-operation between composite companies Fee based: membership fee and recycling fee Technical development of recycling methods Recycling at recycling centres in Europe MSK ETEAM

33 33 MSK MSK ETEAM

34 34 Recycling of automobiles Regulated by the End-of-Life-Vehicles directive 2000/53/EC – In 2015: 85 % reuse + recycling, 10 % energy recovery, 5 % disposal (landfill) – In 2006: 80 % reuse + recycling, 5 % energy recovery, 15 % disposal MSK ETEAM

35 35 Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV’s) Metal components (ferrous and non ferrous) – 75 % of car weight, totally recycles Non-metallic components – 25 % of car weight; plastics, glass, rubber and textiles MSK ETEAM

36 36 MSK ETEAM

37 37 Plastics in cars Rapid increase in the use of plastics Fewer plastic types are used Plastics has a positive impact on environment during the use phase of a car, due to the low weight which saves fuel 100 kg plastics replaces kg heavier materials (1000 l fuel savings!) Large pure plastics components easy to dismantle can be recycled mechanically Energy or raw material recovery is most efficient for non-separable plastics MSK ETEAM

38 38 MSK ETEAM

39 39 Recycling insurance PRODUCERCONSUMER RECYCLER INSURANCE COMPANY INSU RANC E $ BIL L MSK ETEAM

40 The relationship between fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) and cement. Typical FRP compositionUse in cement 25-35% resinEnergy for making cement 25-45% glass fibreRaw material for cement 20-50% inert filler Al(OH) 3 /CaCO 3 Raw material for cement Source: European Composites Industry Association (EuCIA) – Recycle composites as raw material for cement

41 41 Life cycle analysis A tool for evaluating the total environmental impact of a product or a service from cradle to grave MSK ETEAM

42 42 LCA ESTIMATES THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT USE OF RESOURCES RAW MATERIALS PRODUCTION USE OF PRODUCTS WASTE TREATMENT MSK ETEAM

43 43 Use of LCA Identify phases in a products life cycle that account for the main environmental impact Compare different raw materials, production methods, energy-supply and transportation systems Use obtained data to select the material combinations with the lowest environmental impact MSK ETEAM

44 44 Life cycle analysis EPS Environmental load = Environmental load index X amount ELU (Environmental Load Unit) MSK ETEAM

45 45 Example: Liquid gas bottles Material options: Weight Composite6.6 kg Aluminium7.1 kg Steel12.1 kg Use environment: Non corrosive - corrosive Stationary use - mobile use MSK ETEAM

46 46 LIQUID GAS BOTTLES Stationary use, normal environment MSK ETEAM

47 47MSK ETEAM

48 48 Front for passenger car MSK ETEAM


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