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© Fraunhofer UMSICHT Asja Mrotzek, Fraunhofer UMSICHT / Energy Technology International Forum of R&D for Eco-innovation: Research for combining environmental priorities with economic opportunities 22.-23.10.2009, Katowice, Poland
© Fraunhofer UMSICHT European recycling society with a high level of resource efficiency Objectives of Directive on Waste Waste hierarchy to ensure the best overall environmental outcome prevention preparing for re-use recycling Collection, Recycling quotas, R3: gasification/pyrolisis using the components as chemicals other recovery, e. g. energy recovery R1: Energy efficiency of MSWI disposal Deviation from the hierarchy where it is justified by life-cycle thinking Resource thinking by defining specific criteria for end-of-waste status
© Fraunhofer UMSICHT Waste management system: Collection and recycling against the background of high resource efficiency State of the art Separated collection of different waste fractions not implemented throughout the European countries Separate collected fractions influence the composition of the residual waste and the treatment options Collection systems are partly implemented regarding directives/quotas for specific waste fractions, e. g. packaging waste Non packaging waste of the same material (plastics, metal) are not collected with this system Several treatment possibilities for waste are available: mechanical treatment, biological treatment, incineration Resulting fractions or secondary materials do not meet all specifications of industrial applications Treatment of residues after mechanical or biological treatment Reservations against incineration facilities
© Fraunhofer UMSICHT Waste management system: Collection and recycling against the background of high resource efficiency Emerging research(s) Identification of the demand and specifications of industrial applications Implementation of treatment facilities regarding the following applications of the secondary materials Implementation of collection systems for rural and urban regions regarding following treatment processes Development of waste management systems (collection, treatment) regarding the applications of secondary materials and the treatment of residual fractions (acceptance of incineration) Development of new recycling technologies for future waste fractions (fibre materials, energy storage systems) Driver for the need Recycling quotas of the directive on waste Shortage of resources
© Fraunhofer UMSICHT Gasification of waste using the components as chemicals State of the art Synthesis gas chemistry for coal gasification or steam reforming (NG) Gasification of MSW for material use of chemicals is not state of the art Only few operating plants in Europe (using synthesis gas in co-combustion) Production of chemicals (methyl alcohol, DME, methane, ethanol, butanol) using synthesis gas of waste gasification is not state of the art Emerging research(s) Development of oxygen or steam gasification to produce nitrogen free/reduced synthesis gas Adaption of gas cleaning technologies to remove catalyst poisons (e. g. sulphur, mercury) Development/Adaptation of waste synthesis gas (e.g. H 2 /CO-ratio) for state of the art synthesis gas chemistry
© Fraunhofer UMSICHT Gasification of waste using the components as chemicals Emerging research(s) Development of synthesis gas chemistry for the composition of waste synthesis gas (new catalysts) Development of chemicals and applications using synthesis gas generated by waste gasification or synthesis gas with a similar composition Driver for the need Demand for sophisticated gasification technologies for waste Recycling technology according to directive on waste
© Fraunhofer UMSICHT Energy efficiency of MSWI-plants State of the art Application of R1-formula is new and not standardised Kind, amount and demand of the exported energy (heat, electricity, cold) differs between the European regions Emerging research(s) Identification of all energy flows Classification of the energy flows (heat, cold) regarding the energy demand of a country or European region Calculation guideline Development of an open-source internet tool for the calculation of the R1-formula regarding different climate conditions Driver for the need Proof of energy efficiency to fulfil criteria for energy recovery of the hierarchy
© Fraunhofer UMSICHT Life-Cycle Thinking State of the art Different methods and tools: LCA, CBA, Carbon-Footprint Considered system boundaries and process chains differ between studies Comparability between studies and treatment processes throughout the EU is difficult ILCD-Handbook is under development Emerging research(s) Environmental Impacts: Time frame, weighting factors Inventories, data formats, data sets Development of a European guideline for life-cycle thinking considering the different conditions of European regions Implementation of the ILCD-Handbook for decision related to the waste hierarchy Driver for the need Proof of the better environmental outcome of a treatment process
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