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Renaissance Literature 董崇選 中山醫大應用外語系教授 「懂更懂學習英文網站」負責人 網址:

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Presentation on theme: "Renaissance Literature 董崇選 中山醫大應用外語系教授 「懂更懂學習英文網站」負責人 網址:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Renaissance Literature 董崇選 中山醫大應用外語系教授 「懂更懂學習英文網站」負責人 網址:

2 I. Renaissance 的含義 : –A French word meaning “rebirth” Man and the World resurrected ( 復活 ). The revival of humanism. –“How beauteous mankind is! Oh brave new world That has such people in it!” -- The Tempest “This goodly frame, the earth... this most excellent canopy, the air, look you, this brave o’er-hanging firmament, this majestical roof fretted with golden fire.” “What a piece of work is a man! How noble in reason! how infinite in faculty! in form, in moving, how express and admirable! in action how like an angel! in apprehension how like a god!” -- Hamlet

3 II. Renaissance 的時空 : –1321 (Dante died) ~ 1600 –the end of 14th C. to about 1600 –1350 ~ 1650 –the Age of da Vinci, Cervantes, and Shakespeare 達文西、塞凡提斯、莎士比亞 –the Age of Protestant Reformation 宗教改革 –the Age of Discovery 地理大發現 –in Italy, France, Spain, England, Germany, Holland, etc.

4 III. Renaissance 的背景 1. Geographical Explorations: –The Polos, Dias, the Crusaders, Columbus, da Gama, Magellan, etc. 馬可波羅、狄亞士、十字軍、哥倫布、 達迦瑪、麥哲倫 等 2. Scientific Discoveries: –Newton, Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler 牛頓、伽利略、哥白尼、喀卜勒

5 III. Renaissance 的背景 : 3. Invention & Spread of Printing Johannes Gutenberg’s movable type : 古 頓保 發明 活字版 4. Fall of Constantinople The Turks, the Greek scholars 君士坦丁堡陷入土耳其人手中,希腊學者四散 5. Movement of Protestantism 新教徒 ( 抗議教徒 ) 之運動

6 IV. Renaissance 的文學 In Italy: Petrarch ( 佩脫拉克 ) : Sonnets to Laura Sonnets to Laura in Life. Sonnets to Laura in Death A sonnet is a 14-line poem usually expressing Ideal Love. Such love is pure, lofty, undying. Petrarch’s sonnets have psychological subtleties but no philosophical depth. The poet is melancholy in contemplation of Beauty. He popularized the verse form. Boccaccio ( 薄迦邱 ) : Decameron 《十日譚》 100 prose tales supposedly told by 10 young men and women who had fled from Florence and were whiling away ten idle days in a villa near Fiesole by telling stories to each other. “Federigo’s Falcon”: Monna Pulci, Boiardo, Ariosto : Romantic epics

7 A Petrachan (Italian) Sonnet: 1 octave + 1 sestet The Long Love That in My Thought Doth Harbor The long love that in my thought doth harbor, a And in mine heart doth keep his residence, b Into my face presseth with bold pretense b --Wyatt’s version And therein campeth, spreading his banner. a of Petrach’s She that me learneth to love and suffer a Sonnetto in Vita 91 And will that my trust and lust’s negligence b Be reined by reason, shame, and reverence b rhyme scheme With his hardiness taketh displeasure. a Wherewithal unto the heart’s forest he fleeth, c Petrarchan conceit Leaving his enterprise with pain and cry, d long love = warrior And there him hideth, and not appeareth. e What may I do, when my master feareth, e See also: But in the field with him to live and die? d Surrey’s translation For good is the life ending faithfully. (c)

8 IV. Renaissance 的文學 : In Italy Machiavelli ( 馬基維利 ): The Prince 《王者》 the lion & the fox: 獅猛狐猾 Castiglione ( 卡斯提禮用 ): The Book of the Courtier 《庭臣寶鑑》 Cellini ( 伽利尼 ) : Autobiography 自傳 Commedia dell’arte: 藝人喜劇 Comedy of the professional actors. Skeletal scenarios, improvised detail, rigidly typed roles. Tasso ( 塔索 ): Aminta, Jerusalem Delivered

9 IV. Renaissance 的文學 : In Spain: 1. the picaresque novel : 浪漢小說 A picaresque narrative is an episodic depiction of the adventures of a picaro (“rogue” 惡棍 or “picaroon” 浪漢 ), whose knavery implicates him in imbroglios which take him from one social class to another. Frequently, he is a social parasite or a person of low estate who manages to exploit those in more elevated positions. The narrative often has realistic detail and tends to be coarse and bawdy. Lazarillo de Tormes: by an unknown author 2.Cervantes ( 塞凡提斯 ): Don Quixote 《唐.吉訶德》 To ridicule chivalry ( 俠義、俠氣 ) Don Quixote vs. Sancho Panza represents Mind & imagination vs. Sense & practicality 3. Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, Calder Ò n de la Barca

10 IV. Renaissance 的文藝 : In Northern Europe & France 1. 荷蘭 Erasmus ( 伊拉斯瑪斯 ): In Praise of Folly 《愚蠢頌》 An essay with orations, a catalyst of the Protestant Reformation. Folly praises self-deception and madness and satirizes Catholic doctrine and corrupt practices. 2. 德國 Martin Luther ( 馬丁路德 ): (95 theses at Wittenberg) 3. 法國 John Calvin ( 喀爾文 ): 《基督教機制》 The Institutes of the Christian Religion

11 IV. Renaissance 的文藝 : In France 1. Villon ( 維龍 ) : The Ballade of Dead Ladies ( 敘事詩 ) Refrain: “But where are the snows of yesteryear?” Theme: the transitoriness of love and beauty 2. Rabelais ( 拉伯雷 ): Gargantua and Pantagruel 《巨人傳》 The tallest of tall stories about giant-heroes who eat enormously and drink prodigiously and jest wildly. The two giants and Panurge, a knave, libertine & coward 3. Montaigne ( 蒙田 ): Essays 《 散文集》 “Of Cannibals,” “Of Age,” “Of Glory,” “Of Experience,” etc. 「... 無知者,更易講真實... 。」 「... 野人,猶如野果罷了... 。」 “All things, says Plato, are produced either by nature, by fortune, or by art; the greatest and most beautiful by the one or the other of the former, the least and the most imperfect by the last.” 4. Ronsard & others of the Pleiad: 七詩人

12 IV. Renaissance 的文藝 : In England: 1. More ( 摩爾 ): Utopia 《烏托邦》 Raphael Hythloday travels to the imaginary island country, where there is no private property, men and women are educated alike, and all religions are tolerated, but no atheism is allowed. 2. Spenser ( 史賓塞 ) : The Fairy Queen 《仙后》 3. Lyly ( 李利 ): Euphues 《優菲士》 Euphuism ( 優菲體 ) 4. Bacon ( 培根 ): Essays 論文集 “Of Truth,” “Of Death,” “Of Love,” “Of Friendship,” etc. 「死亡能為人打開美譽之門,消除妒忌;活時受人忌恨的,死後便 也 為人尊敬。」

13 IV. Renaissance 的文藝 : In England 5. Sidney ( 席德尼 ): Astrophel and Stella, The Countess of Penbroke’s Arcadia An Apology for Poetry : 詩人是 2nd deity, art 勝 nature 6. Marlowe ( 馬羅 ): Dr. Faustus 《浮士德博士》 : 賣 soul 求 pleasure & knowledge 24 年 7. Ben Jonson ( 姜生 ): comedies of humor 性格喜劇 Volpone (The Fox): satirizing greed or avarice 8. Shakespeare ( 莎士比亞 ): sonnets: (154) plays: King Lear, As You Like It, Henry IV, The Tempest, etc. 悲劇、喜劇、歷史劇、傳奇劇

14 A Shakespearean (English) Sonnet Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day? Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? a Thou art more lovely and more temperate; b Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, a And summer’s lease hath all too short a date; b Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, c 3 quatrains And often is his gold complexion dimmed; d + And every fair from fair declines, c 1 couplet By chance, or nature’s changing course, untrimmed. d But thou eternal summer shall not fade, e Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; f Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade e When in eternal lines thou growest. f So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, g So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. g

15 V. Renaissance 的結論 –The Renaissance ushered Europe into a brand-new world. ( 引領歐洲進入新世界 ) –The Renaissance bridges medieval and modern times. ( 銜接中古與現代 ) –The Renaissance is the revival of humanism, the rebirth of man’s questioning and questing spirit. ( 人文主義復活,再生探索求知精神 ) –The Renaissance reawakened individualism & secularism. ( 喚起個人主義與世俗主義 ) –The Renaissance restored the interest in classical Greek and Roman culture. ( 恢復對古典希羅文化之興趣 )

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