Presentation on theme: "Forms of Government. Government = institutions and processes that societies create & use to organize affairs Who holds power? What roles do the people."— Presentation transcript:
Government = institutions and processes that societies create & use to organize affairs Who holds power? What roles do the people have? How are people in power chosen? How are decisions and laws carried out? How much power is given to those who govern?
CENTRALIZED Decisions made by central authority Autocracy ultimate power in hands of one person DECENTRALIZED Power divided between central authority & smaller political units Federal structures = smaller pol. units have powers over own affairs (but within larger gov’t) Forms of Government
MONARCHY One person rules Can be autocratic Power passed down hereditarily EX: King, Queen, Prince, Emir, Sultan, Emperor, Tzar, Shah, Pharaoh Forms of Government REPUBLIC No monarch Ranges from democracies to oligarchies to dictatorships (from decentralized to centralized/autocratic)
ABSOLUTE Monarch has all power (unlimited) People have no/little power MONARCHIES CONSTITUTIONAL Monarch’s powers are written in a constitution Duties are more ceremonial People have more involvement LIMITED Limits on monarch’s authority People may have some involvement
DEMOCRACY Power rests w/people System where majority rules REPUBLICS (non-monarchies) OLIGARCHY Rule by the few Some people have power (others have little/no power) Junta, theocratic oligarchy, aristocracy DICTATORSHIP Absolute power rests w/one person (who is not monarch) People have little/no power
Dictatorship One person has power By FORCE, not inherited Dictators have absolute control over lives of their citizens People have little to no voice North Korea’s leader Kim Jong Il is considered a dictator Totalitarian, authoritarian, despotism, military dictatorship, Fascism, Communism, etc.
Rule by few Can be a…. OLIGARCHY JUNTA Small group of military officers has power
Direct Democracy All citizens participate No representatives: citizens vote on everything!
Representative Democracy All citizens participate BUT… People elect representatives who vote on laws for the citizens Representatives answer to the people (elections) Can have Constitution
Federal Republic Division of powers among national & local gov’t Local gov’ts have some autonomy Power rests w/voters who elect representative Central gov’t restricted
Theocracy “Theo” means “god” in Greek THEO-cratic = ruled by god or higher power Leaders ( autocratic or oligarchic ) are usually religious leaders and society uses religious law to settle its disputes Example: The Islamic Republic of Iran is a modern theocracy that uses Muslim religious beliefs as a guide.
What is Political Culture? Political Culture is the combination of culture and government. Political Culture is the combination of culture and government. Societies have specific cultural beliefs which affect the way they structure their governments and laws. Societies have specific cultural beliefs which affect the way they structure their governments and laws. Key Terms/Ideas: Political culture Homogenous Nation Heterogeneous State Nationalism Sovereignty
Government, Politics, & Culture What is a Nation? – Body of people unified by culture (language, religion, history) – No political org., sovereignty, formal territorial boundaries Examples of Nations – Palestinians – Cherokee – Tibetans – Chinese – Kurds
Government, Politics, & Culture Nationalism: Nationalism: the belief that a people’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history. Membership in a Nation is based on a feeling of belonging. This feeling often leads to Nationalism This feeling often leads to Nationalism.
Governments, Politics, & Culture What is a “state”? What is a “state”?
Government, Politics, & Culture What is a state? Ppl living in defined territory, organized politically, highest authority (sovereignty)
Government, Politics, & Culture Population: must have people 1. Population: must have people 2. Territory: Must have land with recognized boundaries 3. Sovereignty: Has supreme and absolute power within its own territory 4. Government: Every state has a Government 5. Recognition by other states Characteristics of a State
Characteristics of a State Characteristic #1: People! Smallest = Vatican (836 ppl) Largest = China (1,335,000,000 ppl) U.S. = 313,900,000 ppl
Characteristics of a State Characteristic #2: Territory! Characteristic #2: Territory! – Land w/recognizable boundaries – Sea & air space Largest = Russia (6,591,100 sq.mi.) Smallest = Monaco ( 0.75 sq.mi.) Vatican (0.17 sq.mi.) Libertyville = 9.1 sq.mi. Vernon Hills = 8 sq.mi. U.S. = 3,535,935 sq.mi.
Characteristics of a State #3) Sovereignty – power to make/enforce law #3) Sovereignty – power to make/enforce law #4) Political organization – structure & personnel to implement power #4) Political organization – structure & personnel to implement power
Government, Politics, & Culture Not all Nations have states. When a Nation does have a state, it is known as a Nation-State When a Nation does have a state, it is known as a Nation-State Newest state? – South Sudan (2011) Homogenous Nation States- Mainly one nation in the State. Heterogeneous Nation State- Contains significant numbers of other Nations