Presentation on theme: "Grapevine breeding for resistance to downy and powdery mildew at the University of Udine UNIVERSITY OF UDINE, ITALY ___________________________________________."— Presentation transcript:
Grapevine breeding for resistance to downy and powdery mildew at the University of Udine UNIVERSITY OF UDINE, ITALY ___________________________________________ Project INNOWINE kickoff, June 21°, 2012, Novi Sad Enrico PETERLUNGER, Gabriele DI GASPERO, Simone CASTELLARIN, Raffaele TESTOLIN Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
Modern viticulture is depending strongly upon pesticides.
Vineyards in Europe on 3.3% of total agricultural land but to preserve the grapes it is applied 65% of all fungicides used in agriculture, farmers damage for - man consumers - environment - economy of the crop
Fungicide consumption in France Fungicides (France) 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 19921993199419951996199719981999 Years Tonnes de matières actives Cereales Grapevine Other crops
How did all this start?
Plants and their pathogens co-evolute in a continous struggle for life one species not able of reproduction is destined to succumb Man can help that species to survive but such a choice has a cost........... Most cultivated grape varieties are > 200 years old Minimum contribution from breeding Limited variability, also reduced by clonal selection
A brief hystory from North America -Phylloxera 1878 -Powdery mildew 1845 -Downy mildew 1868
Phylloxera grafting onto resistant rootstocks breeding for resistant rootstock PM, DM breeding for resistant cultivars, hybrids such as Isabella, Noah, Clinton, Baco …
but … Resistance was achieved Quality was not satisfactory About 1960 Europe decided to ban hybrids except … eventual new selections “ comparable ” to vinifera
Sources of resistance to diseases 30 American species (V. riparia, V. rupestris, Muscadinia ) 30 Asian species (V. amurensis, … ) monogenic (non-host, HR) poligenic
origin of sources of resistance Downy mildew Powdery mildew Downy mildew Powdery mildew? Powdery mildew (ren1) Kishmish vatkana
the breeding lines susceptible (S) resistant (R) Chardonnay Bianca Cabernet S. 20/3 Merlot Regent Sauvignon Seyval Sangiovese Pannonia Tocai SK-00-1/2......
Demasculation and controlled pollination
The workplan 800+ accessions introduced into the repository 270 + cross combinations 16.000+ seedlings under evaluation Selection for - resistance - agronomical features - quality of musts
advanced evaluation nano-vinification of > 200 selections at UIV (VR) wine testing for up to three years advanced evaluation for 15 selections at VCR in Fossalon 
several advanced selections Vc 80.024 Vc 55.084 Vc 80.111 Vc 34.004 Vc 80.100 Vc 55.100 Vc 58.083 Vc 32.078 Vc 31.125 Vc 31.122 Vc 57.001 tocai x bianca sauv x bianca tocai x bianca tocai x 20/3 tocai x bianca sauv x bianca cab s x bianca cab s x 20/3 merlot x 20/3 merlot x 20/3 merlot x bianca
Future development of the breeding program to combine together more than one resistence combining resistences to different pathogens combining more resistences to the same pathogen 2 sources of resistance to downy and 2 to powdery mildew to differentiate the product sparkling base long-lasting wines dessert wines table grape...
The new frontiers of selection: the marker-assisted selection - Genome sequencing - No GMO - The selection is not carried out on phenotypic characters but on genes controlling them (e.g. resistance) X GTACGG GTACGT GTACGG GTACGT GTACGG GTACGG GTACGT GTACGG GTACGG GTACGT
The new frontiers of selection: the selection for the aromatic profiles bianca chardonnay
- The impact of traditional viticulture needs to be considered - A more healthy viticulture with lower production cost can be done, without forgetting tradition
-The value of our products is the territory, with our tradition and skills -A resistant cultivar can help future viticulture to be more sustainable
Thanks for your attention! Research conducted in cooperation with IGA- INSTITUTE OF APPLIED GENOMICS - Udine and Institute of Viticulture, P é cs, Hungary Missouri State University, USA INRA, Colmar, France Universit é de Strasbourg, France Genoscope, Paris, France Institut f ü r Rebenz ü chtung, Geilweilerhof, Germany University of Geisenheim, Germany Unione Italiana Vini, Verona, Italy University of Verona, Italy CRA Istituto di Viticoltura, Conegliano, Italy Support from Region Friuli Venezia Giulia MiPAF Projects Vigna & Vigneto MiUR strategic projects PRIN Vivai Cooperativi di Rauscedo Banche di Credito Cooperativo of FVG CR of Udine, Gorizia, Trieste Consorzio Collio Winemakers Felluga L, Felluga M, Zamò, Venica