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Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition ISBN 0137144547 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Teaching Every Student Chapter 13.

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Presentation on theme: "Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition ISBN 0137144547 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Teaching Every Student Chapter 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Teaching Every Student Chapter 13

2 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 I. Research on Teaching Who was the most effective teacher you ever had? What was it about this teacher that made her/him effective? What do teachers need to know to be effective?

3 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 Characteristics of Effective Teachers Clarity & Organization The clearer the presentations/explanations, the more students learn Warmth & Enthusiasm Teacher enthusiasm correlated with student achievement Teacher warmth and understanding associated with students liking the class (and the teacher)

4 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4 Characteristics of Effective Teachers cont’d Teachers’ knowledge Complicated relationship between teachers’ content knowledge and student learning Content knowledge aids in clearer presentations and organization

5 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5 Knowledge for Teaching Expert teachers have elaborate systems of knowledge 7 areas of professional knowledge: Content knowledge General teaching strategies Curriculum—content and age appropriate Subjects-specific knowledge Learner characteristics including cultural background The learning setting Goals and purposes of teaching

6 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6 II. The First Step: Planning Which of the following maxims about teacher planning resonates with you, and why? Time is of the essence Plans are made to be broken Don’t look back A little planning goes a long way You can do it yourself One size fits all

7 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7 Planning Planning influences what students will learn Several layers of planning—year, term, unit, week, day Plans reduce uncertainty in teaching Over-planning is associated with less learning (Why do you think that is?) Experienced teachers collaborate and learn from one another Reflection is an important part of planning (Why?) Planning: A creative problem-solving process (How so?)

8 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8 Objectives for Learning Instructional objectives: Intended learning outcomes Three parts of behavioral objectives: Describe the intended student behavior List the conditions under which the behavior is to occur Define the criteria for acceptable performance Cognitive objectives—starting with the general: Begin by stating the objective in general terms and then structure the plan accordingly What are the pros/cons of each approach?

9 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9 The Cognitive Domain Remembering (Knowledge) Understanding (Comprehension) Applying Analyzing Creating (Synthesis) Evaluating

10 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10 The Affective Domain Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Characterization by value

11 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11 The Psychomotor Domain Voluntary muscle capabilities The ability to perform a specific skill Of relevance to a wide range of educators: Fine arts, vocational- technical education, special education, etc.

12 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12 Planning from a Constructivist Perspective Teacher and students make decisions together about content, activities, approaches Teacher has overarching goals that guide planning

13 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 III. Teaching Approaches Two teacher-centered approaches: Expository Teaching Direct Instruction Expository teaching Emphasis on meaningful verbal learning Use of deductive reasoning Begins with a general advanced organizer Comparative Expository

14 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 Teaching Approaches cont’d Steps in expository teaching Advance organizer Present content in terms of similarities and differences using examples Elaborate the advance organizer Direct Instruction Best for the teaching of basic skills Relatively unambiguous tasks

15 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15 Seatwork and Homework Seatwork Seatwork often overused Should follow the lesson and give students supervised practice Homework Remember that students need to understand the assignment! Hold students accountable (i.e. check it!)

16 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16 Questioning and Discussion Types of questions: Convergent—one right answer Divergent—many possible answers Fitting the questions to students Different questioning patterns work better for students of differing ages or ability levels Respond to student answers in a way that promotes learning How should students be selected to answer questions?

17 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17 Questioning and Discussion cont’d Advantages of group discussion Directly involves students Disadvantages Unpredictable May digress into “exchanges of ignorance” Making sure students have adequate background info may require a good deal of preparation Overly dominant or disengaged students What are some steps to prevent a few students from dominating a discussion?

18 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 Teaching Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic Whole-language approach “Authentic” Guess meaning of unfamiliar words from context Skilled-based approach (phonics) Alphabetic coding and awareness of letter sounds are essential skills Knowing meaning helps determine context The best approach is probably in the middle

19 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19 IV. Differentiated Instruction Basic idea of differentiated instruction: teachers must take into account not only the subjects they are teaching but also the students What are the pros and cons of ability grouping? What are the challenges of having students with disabilities in your classroom? In what ways is it beneficial to have students with disabilities in your classroom? How can technology improve access for students with disabilities? How could it create barriers?

20 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20 Within-Class and Flexible Grouping Within-class ability grouping Grouping students by ability within the same classroom Concern: Ability grouping could lead to ability tracking Concern: Students in lower-ability groups are less likely to be asked critical questions or to have choice Flexible grouping Grouping and regrouping based on learning needs Continuous assessment to assure that students are always working within the Zone of Proximal Development

21 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21 Differentiated Instruction in Inclusive Classrooms Students with disabilities need: To learn the academic material To be full participants in the day-to-day life of the classroom Students with disabilities benefit from: Advanced organizers with emphasis on what they know and/or clear objectives INCLUDE strategy

22 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22 INCLUDE Strategy (Friend & Bursuck, 2002) Identify environmental, curricular, and instructional demands of the classroom Note students learning strengths/needs Check for potential areas of student success Look for potential problem areas Use info gathered to brainstorm instructional adaptations Decide which adaptation to try Evaluate student progress

23 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23 Teacher Expectations Expectations effects Self-fulfilling prophesy—groundless expectation that leads to behavior that confirms the expectations Sustaining expectations—initial assessment remains constant (fails to recognize new information) Have you ever felt you were the subject of self- fulfilling or sustaining expectations as a student? How did it feel?

24 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24 Teacher Expectations cont’d Sources of expectations Intelligence test scores Gender Notes from previous teachers Med/psych reports Knowledge about siblings Appearance Previous achievement SES Race & ethnicity Actual behavior

25 Educational Psychology, 11 th Edition Anita Woolfolk ISBN © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25 Teacher-Student Interactions Teachers with high expectations of students tend to: Ask more questions, and more difficult questions Allow more time and chances to respond Provide more cues and prompts Smile more and show greater warmth Teachers with low expectations tend to: Ask easier questions, and allow less time for answers More likely to respond with sympathetic acceptance Praise inadequate answers Offer less genuine praise


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