Presentation on theme: " Session 1: Introductions and Overview of Training Session 2: The Role of an Advocate and Situations That May Occur Session 3: Campus Police."— Presentation transcript:
Session 1: Introductions and Overview of Training Session 2: The Role of an Advocate and Situations That May Occur Session 3: Campus Police and Reporting Session 4: Procedures in Common Advocacy Situations Session 5: Skills Training Session 6: Counseling Center and Self-Care
SAFE = Students Advocating for Everyone The purpose of Students Advocating for Everyone (SAFE) is to serve as a peer education group specializing in issues related to sexual violence and relationship violence. SAFE Members raise awareness, facilitate programs, and serve as advocates for students who have been victimized. SAFE members also work to educate the student body and community about sexual assault, gender communication, relationship violence and other important issues that affect the campus community.
Women’s awareness week Mansfield University
SAFE Advocates assist with a 24-hour confidential service to women and men who may have experienced date rape, coerced sex, acquaintance rape, sexual harassment or relationship violence. SAFE Advocates assist victims of sexual assault, dating violence and sexual harassment. The SAFE Advocates may advise the victims what type of services are available on and off campus, by offering options and/or referalls. These include, but are not limited to: The Counseling Center; The filing of charges, whether criminal or university; Medical attention; and/or Assistance with academic and housing concerns arising from the assault. The program provides accompaniment to any services for any victim wishing it. The SAFE Advocates do not make decisions for the victims, but encourages the victim to make his/her own choices based on his/her own needs.
Support is given to victims of sexual assault, sexual harassment, dating violence, and stalking. Options are plans of action a victim can pursue, if desired. Referrals are made based on the victim’s needs and desires. Accompaniment is available when the victim is discussing his/her situation with any person in authority. If an advocate does NOT feel comfortable accompanying a victim, he/she does NOT have to do so. Program Presentations are presented throughout the year to various groups on campus. Publicity is accomplished through the use of a variety of ways.
Complete the SAFE Advocate Training. Complete the paperwork for all HOPE calls returning it to the Assistant Director for Residence Life and Student Advocacy. Keep the Assistant Director for Residence Life and Student Advocacy informed of all services provided to victims and time spent with each victim. NO services other than listening should be provided without the knowledge of the Assistant Director for Residence Life and Student Advocacy. Attend scheduled SAFE meetings and additional training sessions, when able. Assist in posting various flyers around campus for programs and/or HOPE service.
Means something that is communicated in secret. SAFE assures confidentiality to all who utilize the program’s services. Client names, identifying information and any disclosures will be kept confidential unless an advocate receives permission from the client to release the information to a specific third party. ANYTHING A VICTIM TELLS YOU WHILE YOU ARE ACTING AS AN ADVOCATE IS NOT TO BE REPEATED TO ANYONE.
The only persons you may discuss any victim with is the Assistant Director for Residence Life and Student Advocacy. The following situations are additional exceptions to this policy: An advocate has knowledge of a victim’s suicidal or homicidal potential. An advocate has knowledge of a victim’s potential to harm another person. A judge orders the program to release information to the court.
Title IX states that: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. On April 4, 2011, the U.S. Department of Education (ED) Office of Civil Rights (OCR) released a Dear Colleague Letter providing guidance and reminding colleges and universities that accept federal funds of their responsibilities under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 to address sexual harassment and assault.
Is intimidation, bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. UNWELCOME BEHAVIOR is the critical word. Unwelcome does not mean "involuntary." A victim may consent or agree to certain conduct and actively participate in it even though it is offensive and objectionable. Therefore, sexual conduct is unwelcome whenever the person subjected to it considers it unwelcome. Whether the person in fact welcomed a request for a date, sex-oriented comment or joke depends on all the circumstances.
Referring to an adult as a girl, hunk, doll, babe or honey. Whistling at someone, cat calls. Making sexual comments about a person's body. Telling sexual jokes or stories. Asking personal questions about social or sexual life. Making sexual comments about a person's clothing, anatomy, or looks. Telling lies or spreading rumors about a person's personal sex life.
Looking a person up and down (elevator eyes). Staring at someone. Blocking a person's path. Following the person. Giving personal gifts. Displaying sexually suggestive visuals. Making facial expressions such as winking, throwing kisses or licking lips.
Giving a massage around the neck or shoulders. Touching the person's clothing, hair or body. Hugging, kissing, patting or stroking. Touching or rubbing oneself sexually around another person. Standing close or brushing up against another person.
MYTH: Sexual harassment is rare. FACT: Sexual harassment is extremely widespread. It touches the lives of 40 to 60 percent of working women, and similar proportions of female students in colleges and universities. MYTH: The seriousness of sexual harassment has been exaggerated; most so-called harassment is really trivial and harmless flirtation. FACT: Sexual harassment can be devastating. Studies indicate that most harassment has nothing to do with "flirtation: or sincere sexual or social interest. Rather, it is offensive, often frightening and insulting to women. Research shows that women are often forced to leave school or jobs to avoid harassment; may experience serious psychological and health-related problems. MYTH: Many women make up and report stories of sexual harassment to get back at their employers or others who have angered them. FACT: Research shows that less than one percent of complaints are false. Women rarely file complaints are false. Women rarely file complaints even when they're are justified in doing so. MYTH: Women who are sexually harassed generally provoke harassment by the way they look, dress and behave. FACT: Harassment does not occur because women dress provocatively or initiate sexual activity in the hope of getting promoted and advancing their careers. Studies have found that victims of sexual harassment vary in physical appearance, type of dress, age, and behavior. The only thing they have in common is that over 99% of them are female. MYTH: If you ignore harassment, it will go away. FACT: It will not. Research has shown that simply ignoring the behavior is ineffective; harassers generally will not stop on their own. Ignoring such behavior may even be seen as agreement or encouragement.
Psychological Reactions Depression, anxiety, shock, denial Anger, fear, frustration, irritability Guilt, self-blame, isolation Physiological Reactions Sleep Disturbances, nightmares Phobias, panic reactions Weight fluctuations Career/School-Related Effects Drop in academic or work performance due to stress Absenteeism Withdrawal from work or school
Be supportive by listening and taking what the person says seriously. If you want to hug or touch the person to show your support, ask him or her first. Remember, the person may have been violated and did not have control over what was done to his/her body. By asking if the person wants touch, you help him/her take back control. Don't ask "why" questions; they can make the person feel judged. Tell the person that it's not his/her fault. Most survivors will blame themselves for what happened. It is important to counter that with strong messages that the harassment/assault was the fault and responsibility of the perpetrator and not the survivor. Don't judge his/her actions leading up to, during, or after the incident. Regardless of what the survivor was wearing, drinking, etc., the perpetrator is responsible. Allow the person to make his/her own decision about whether or not to report the assault, who to tell, etc. Support those decisions. Allow the survivor to share what he/she wants when he/she wants. Don't pressure the person to share information before he/she is ready. Offer resources. Encourage the person to get support. Tell the person that everything he/she decides to share with you is confidential (unless it falls within the exceptions). Get support for yourself.
Friends, affirmative action officers, human resource professionals and women's groups can offer information, advice and support, but only the person who was harassed can decide what is right for him/her. Some options are: Say NO to the harasser! Write a letter to the harasser Tell someone; don't keep it to yourself. Finding out who is responsible for dealing with harassment on your organization and whether you can talk in confidence to that person. Find out what the procedure is at your workplace or school. If you are experiencing severe psychological distress, you may want to consult a psychologist or other mental health professional who understands the problems caused by sexual harassment.
If you are contacted by a victim who has experienced sexual harassment, you may give the victim any of the options below. Reporting: Possible sexual harassment may be reported to: Mansfield University Police – Doane Center The Office of Social Equity – Alan Zellner University Chief Judicial Officer – Mary Beth Kollar Title IX Compliance Officer: A representative from Human Resources shall operate as the Title IX Compliance Officer at Mansfield University: Dia Carlton Investigation: Investigations may be made by University Police, the Office of Social Equity, the Chief Judicial Officer, or other office designated to investigate claims. Investigations may take time to ensure all information has been collected while still maintaining a prompt and equitable resolution.
A term commonly used to refer to unwanted or obsessive attention by an individual or group toward another person. Stalking behaviors are related to harassment and intimidation and may include following the victim in person or monitoring them. The behavior is experienced as unwanted or intrusive and the targeted person may react with fear, concern, and avoidance.
Erotomania Hold a delusional belief that they are loved by their target - usually a well-known person Love Obsession No previous personal relationship Want to live out their fantasy with the target Simple Obsession Previous or current intimate partner Rejection often triggers this form of stalking Turn to threats and violence as means of power & control
Calling repeatedly Voice/Text messages Waiting outside of residence hall Waiting outside of work Following target Sending letters (traditional mail or electronic) Sending gifts Instant messaging someone Using social networking to learn about target Taking pictures of target Befriending target’s friends
The use of the Internet, , or other electronic communications device to stalk another person. Evidence suggests cyber stalking is a growing problem. Although there is no comprehensive, nationwide data on the extent of cyber stalking in the United States, some internet service providers compile statistics on the number and types of complaints of harassment and/or threats involving their subscribers and individual law enforcement agencies have compiled helpful statistics.
Myth: Only celebrities are stalked. Reality: 1.4 million people are stalked every year in the United States. We may hear more about celebrity stalking cases in the media, but the vast majority of stalking victims are ordinary citizens Myth: Stalking is creepy but not dangerous. Reality: Stalking is creepy and dangerous. Three out of four women who were murdered by an intimate partner had been previously stalked by the killer. Myth: Stalking is annoying but not illegal. Reality: Stalking is a crime under the laws of all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the federal government. Myth: You can’t be stalked by someone you are still dating. Reality: If your current boyfriend or girlfriend tracks your every move or follows you around in a way that causes you fear, that is stalking. Myth: Modern surveillance technology is too expensive and confusing for most stalkers to use. Reality: Stalkers can buy surveillance software and hardware for as little as $30 and can easily track victim’s every move on a computer. Myth: If you confront the stalker, he’ll go away. Reality: Stalkers can be unreasonable and unpredictable. Confronting or trying to reason with a stalker can be dangerous.
Effects on mental health Denial, confusion, self-doubt, questioning if what is happening is unreasonable, wondering if they are over- reacting Frustration Guilt, embarrassment, self-blame Effects on physical health Fatigue from difficulty sleeping, being constantly on guard, symptoms of depression Effects of chronic stress including headaches, hypertension Fluctuations in weight due to not eating or comfort eating Effects on work and school Deteriorating school/work performance Increased sick leave Leaving job or being sacked
Don’t be afraid to let them know that you are concerned for her or his safety. Acknowledge that she or he is in a very difficult and scary situation. Remind her or him to avoid communication with the stalker. Do not give out any information about the victim to the stalker. Be supportive. Document anything you witness happening between the stalker and the victim. Encourage her or him to talk to people who can provide help and guidance.
Friends, affirmative action officers, human resource professionals and women's groups can offer information, advice and support, but only the person who was harassed can decide what is right for him/her. Some options are: Keep yourself safe and always take care of yourself. If you can, firmly communicate with the stalker that the attention is unwanted and you want it to stop. Keep a journal or notebook to write down specific information about the stalker and events. Let friends, family, roommates, neighbors, and co-workers know to not give out any personal information about you to anyone without your permission. Create a safety plan to remove yourself and others from a potentially harmful situation. Find out what the procedure is at your workplace or school. If you are experiencing severe psychological distress, you may want to consult a psychologist or other mental health professional who understands the problems caused by sexual harassment.
If you are contacted by a victim who has experienced stalking, you may give the victim any of the options below. Reporting Procedures: The University strongly encourages individuals to report suspected stalking situations to the appropriate law enforcement agencies and university officials. Reporting the stalking incidents is the most effective way action can be taken against the alleged stalker. Services that can be provided are development of safety plans, academic assistance, housing considerations, assistance with the university disciplinary process and referrals to on-campus resources. University Judicial Process: The Mansfield University Judicial Officer will investigate a charge against a university student. When a complainant gives information to the student Judicial Officer about a stalking incident and accuses a university student of the offense, the Judicial Officer will have the discretion to impose appropriate temporary sanctions against the accused student pending a hearing. When any necessary investigation is complete, the Judicial Officer will notify the accused student of the charges and will handle the complaint through an administrative hearing or refer the case to the University Judicial Board.
A pattern of abusive behaviors used to exert power and control over a dating partner. A Pattern of Behavior Calling dating violence a pattern doesn't mean the first instance of abuse is not dating violence. It just recognizes that dating violence usually involves a series of abusive behaviors over a course of time. Every relationships is different, but the one thing that is common to most abusive dating relationships is that the violence escalates over time and becomes more and more dangerous for the young victim. Power and Control The definition also points out that at the core of dating violence are issues of power and control.
Physical Abuse any intentional use of physical force with the intent to cause fear or injury, like hitting, shoving, biting, strangling, kicking or using a weapon. Emotional Abuse non-physical behaviors such as threats, insults, constant monitoring, humiliation, intimidation, isolation or stalking. Sexual Abuse any action that impacts a person’s ability to control their sexual activity or the circumstances in which sexual activity occurs, including rape, coercion or restricting access to birth control.
Stage 1: Tension Building The abuser may become edgy and start to react more negatively to frustrations. The tension may rise to a point where the abuser feels that he/she has lost control over the behavior/actions of the victim. Stage 2: Acute Explosion This is often the shortest of the stages because violence most always occurs at this point. The abuser may outwardly express more intense anger. Some victims become more emotionally detached because becoming emotional with the abuser could be more likely to trigger violence. It typically ends after a violent outburst by the abuser. Stage 3: Honeymoon This is typically a welcomed stage by both the abuser and the victim. The abuser usually expresses remorse for his/her actions and the victim starts to believe that the abuser can change and stop being abusive. This stage often continues until the abuser begins to feel confident again and starts to feel a loss of control over the victim's behavior. This stage has shown to decrease in length over time and has been shown to in some cases, disappear totally.
While there are many warning signs of abuse, here are ten of the most common: Checking your cell phone or without permission Constant put-downs Extreme jealousy or insecurity Explosive temper Financial control Isolating you from family or friends Mood swings Physically hurting you in any way Possessiveness Telling you what to do
MYTH: Battered women provoke the violence. FACT: Any woman can find herself battered. The victim is not at fault but rather the batterer, the partner who has committed the violence. No one MYTH: Only women are victims of domestic violence. FACT: Approximately 95% of those battered are women; however, in a small number of cases, women are the batterers and their male partners, the victims. MYTH: The problem is couples assaulting each other. FACT: A well-publicized study conducted by Dr. Murray Strauss at the University of New Hampshire found that women use violent means to resolve conflict in relationships as often as men. However, the study also concluded that when the context and consequences of an assault are measured, the majority of victims are women. The U.S. Department of Justice has found that 95% of the victims of spouse abuse are female. Men can be victims, but it is rare. MYTH: Domestic violence is a push, a slap, or a punch and does not produce serious injuries. FACT: Battered women are often severely injured and even murdered. Between 22% and 35% of women who visit emergency rooms are there for injuries related to ongoing partner abuse. MYTH: It is easy for a battered woman to leave her abuser. FACT: Women who leave their abuser are at 75% greater risk of being killed by the abuser than those who stay. Nationally, 50% of homeless women and children are on the street because of violence in their home.
Psychological Effects Dating violence can have severe psychological effects for victims. Victims can experience depression and anxiety, have a very difficult time concentrating, exhibit suicidal behavior, have sleeping problems and have low self-esteem, says the Do Something Organization. Physical Effects Twenty percent of men and 42 percent of women experience minor injuries as a result of dating violence, says the Do Something Organization. Frequent and severe abuse can result in more severe injuries. Lesions, cuts, bruises, gynecological injuries and broken bones can occur. Social Effects The social effects experienced by dating violence victims are what makes victims incapable of escaping their abusers. The social effects are the abuser not allowing their victim to use the Internet or phone, the victim showing noticeable behavioral changes (personality changes, becoming passive) and the abuser isolating his victim from the victim's friends, family and other acquaintances, says the Do Something Organization.
TELL HIM/HER... It's not your fault. I'm sorry this happened to you. You don't deserve to be abused or assaulted. You have rights and options. There is support available for you. LISTEN BELIEVE DO NOT JUDGE UNDERSTAND WHAT HE/SHE IS SAYING BE SUPPORTIVE REPEAT THAT VIOLENCE, ABUSE OR ASSAULT ARE NOT HIS/HER FAULT SUPPORT HER RIGHT TO MAKE HIS/HER OWN DECISIONS PROVIDE RESOURCE INFORMATION EDUCATE YOURSELF PROTECT HIS/HER PRIVACY
Friends, affirmative action officers, human resource professionals and women's groups can offer information, advice and support, but only the person who was harassed can decide what is right for him/her. Some options are: Talk to your partner, if it is safe. Explain how you want to be treated. Leave, either temporarily or permanently. Be sure to create a safety plan! Get Help. Know the law; it's on your side. Assault is a crime. You can't change your partner's behavior. You can't stay in an abusive relationship and be safe. You can't "do the right thing" to please the abuser. You can't save the relationship by yourself. Don't blame yourself for your own victimization. It's not your fault! You can't forgive and forget. You can't shield your partner from the consequences of abusive behavior. Don't respond to violence with more violence.
If you are contacted by a victim who has experienced dating violence, you may give the victim any of the options below. Reporting Procedures: The University strongly encourages individuals to report dating violence situations to the appropriate law enforcement agencies and university officials. Reporting the incidents is the most effective way action can be taken against the alleged abuser. Services that can be provided are development of safety plans, academic assistance, housing considerations, assistance with the university disciplinary process and referrals to on-campus resources. University Judicial Process: The Mansfield University Judicial Officer will investigate a charge against a university student. When a complainant gives information to the student Judicial Officer about a dating violence incident and accuses a university student of the offense, the Judicial Officer will have the discretion to impose appropriate temporary sanctions against the accused student pending a hearing. When any necessary investigation is complete, the Judicial Officer will notify the accused student of the charges and will handle the complaint through an administrative hearing or refer the case to the University Judicial Board. Protection From Abuse Order (PFA): The PFA is a special form of restraining order for victims of relationship/domestic violence. You are eligible if you have been assaulted or threatened with physical force by an intimate partner or family member. You are still eligible if you have been assaulted/threatened once or have only been on one date with the person. The PFA also has a clause for stalking situations. No arrest is made unless the order is violated.
Any unwanted sexual contact or attention made through force, threats, bribes, manipulation, pressure, tricks or violence. It may be physical or non-physical and includes rape and attempted rape, child molestation and incest, and sexual harassment. Sexual assault includes a wide range of victimization, distinct from rape or attempted rape. Sexual assault also includes verbal threats.
The crime of forcibly engaging in sexual intercourse with a person who has not consented. Rape may also include situations in which penetration is accomplished when the victim is unable to give consent or is prevented from resisting due to being intoxicated, drugged, unconscious, or asleep. Rape can happen to anyone - male or female, regardless of age or sexual orientation.
When someone gives clear permission to participate in sexual activity. Ultimately, consent must be given verbally. Expressive, non-verbal indicators such as body language should not be relied upon when seeking consent. Individuals should always ask for clarity when consent is in question. Most importantly, consent cannot be given if the person is intoxicated, under the influence of drugs, physically or mentally impaired, unconscious, underage or asleep.
The use of drugs to facilitate date rapes is on the rise. Drugs can be slipped into a drink; put in place of other drugs a person may be using, or put into food. The most common date rape drug is alcohol. Other date rape drugs include: Rohypnol is a strong sleeping and anti-anxiety pill. It is also known as roofies, rophies, roche and forget-me pill. GHB is a sedative that can produce a high feeling. Ketamine is a sedative and animal tranquilizer also known as K, special K, ket, vitamin K and cat valium.
Myth: Only certain types of women get raped. It could never happen to me. Reality: Anyone can be raped. Women and men from the very young to the elderly; people of all ethnicities; socioeconomic levels; and all sexual orientations are raped. Myth: Rapes are committed by strangers at night in dark alleys. Reality: Most rapes are committed by someone the woman knows and at any time of day or night. Women are raped most commonly in their own homes. Myth: Men rape women because they are sexually aroused or have been sexually deprived. Reality: The motives for rape are complex and varied but often include hostility against women in general, the desire to exert power and control, the desire to humiliate and degrade, and in some cases, the desire to inflict pain. Myth: Men can’t be raped. Reality: Men can be and are sexually assaulted. Their attackers are almost always other males. The survivor in such sexual assaults is not necessarily, nor usually, gay. Myth: Women provoke rape by the way they dress or the way they flirt. Reality: Men rape women because they can get away with it. Women’s dress and behavior are not the cause. Rape is an expression of power and control. A man might justify his raping by pointing to the woman’s behavior, but that is an excuse rather than a reason. Myth: Women lie about being raped or use it to get even with their boyfriends. Reality: Women do not lie about being raped with anymore frequency than men or women lie about any other crime. Survivors do not normally lie about being raped. Sexual assault is the most under-reported crime of all according to National Crime Victimization Survey.
Physical Effects Immediate physical effects may be pain and bodily injuries, especially if the perpetrator used force. Specific physical effects may include: bruises, broken bones, STIs, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and pregnancy. Longer-term physical effects may be disturbed sleep patterns, nightmares, insomnia, loss of appetite, and stomach pains. Emotional and Psychological Effects Sexual assault causes harmful emotional, psychological, or physiological effects that are more severe than the effects of other crimes. These effects include: Self-blame Shame, guilt, or embarrassment Anxiety, stress, or fear Shock Impaired memory, confusion, or disorientation Anger, hostility, or aggression Sexualized behaviors Loss of sex drive or sexual dysfunction (not being able to perform sexual acts) Interpersonal problems
Talk, listen, respect and be emotionally available to the survivor. Accept what the survivor tells you. Accept the fact that the assault/abuse happened. Understand that it is not the survivor’s fault. Listen nonjudgmentally. Suggest options and actions (medical, psychological and other assistance), but let the survivor decide what action to take. Let the survivor talk about the incident, but don’t force a discussion. Respect and understand that temporarily the survivor may become distant from loved ones. Assure the survivor that you will be available to provide support throughout the process of recovery. Give the survivor time to heal. Be patient and understand that the healing process takes time. Take the initiative to maintain communications with the survivor. Moderate your natural tendencies to become overprotective. The survivor may need to seek medical attention immediately. You can help by encouraging and accompanying the survivor to obtain medical attention. If the survivor wishes to seek criminal action, this should be done as soon as possible after the incident.
Friends, affirmative action officers, human resource professionals and women's groups can offer information, advice and support, but only the person who was harassed can decide what is right for him/her. Some options are: Go to a safe place. If you want to report the crime, notify the police immediately. Call a friend, a family member, or someone else you trust who can be with you and give you support. Preserve all physical evidence of the assault. Do not shower, bathe, douche, eat, drink, wash your hands, or brush your teeth until after you have had a medical examination. Save all of the clothing you were wearing at the time of the assault. Place each item of clothing in a separate paper bag. Do not use plastic bags. Do not clean or disturb anything in the area where the assault occurred. Get medical care as soon as possible. If you suspect that you may have been given a "rape drug," ask the hospital or clinic where you receive medical care to take a urine sample. Write down as much as you can remember about the circumstances of the assault, including a description of the assailant. Talk with a counselor who is trained to assist rape victims.
If you are contacted by a victim who has experienced sexual assault, you may give the victim any of the options below. Reporting: Possible sexual assault may be reported to: Mansfield University Police – Doane Center University Chief Judicial Officer – Mary Beth Kollar Title IX Compliance Officer: A representative from Human Resources shall operate as the Title IX Compliance Officer at Mansfield University: Dia Carlton Investigation: Investigations may be made by University Police, the Office of Social Equity, the Chief Judicial Officer, or other office designated to investigate claims. Investigations may take time to ensure all information has been collected while still maintaining a prompt and equitable resolution.
CONTENT What is specifically said. Listen carefully for, not only what a person says, but also the words, expressions and patterns the person is using, which may give you a deeper insight. Advocates should develop their ability to remember what was said, as well as to clarify what was said or finding out what was not said. PROCESS All nonverbal phenomena, including how content is conveyed, themes, body language, interactions, etc. (i.e. smiling)
ATTENDING Involves our behaviors which reflect our paying full attention, in an accepting and supportive way, to the client. PARAPHRASING Selective focusing on the cognitive part of the message – with the client’s key words and ideas being communicated back to the client in a rephrased, and shortened form. REFLECTING CLIENT'S FEELINGS Affective reflection in an open-ended, respectful manner of what the client is communicating verbally and nonverbally, both directly through words and nonverbal behaviors as well as reasonable inferences about what the client might be experiencing emotionally.
Ability of advocate to be freely themselves. Includes similarity between outer words/behaviors and inner feelings; non- defensiveness; non-role-playing; and being unpretentious. For example, if the helper claims that they are comfortable helping a client explore a drug or sexual issue, but their behavior (verbally and nonverbally) shows signs of discomfort with the topic this will become an obstacle to progress and often lead to client confusion about and mistrust of the helper.
A questioning process to assist the client in clarifying or exploring thoughts or feelings. Counselor is not requesting specific information and not purposively limiting the nature of the response to only a yes or no, or very brief answer. Goal is to facilitate exploration – not needed if the client is already doing this. Have an intention for every question you ask. Avoid asking too many questions, or assuming an interrogatory role. Best approach is to follow a response to an open- ended question with a paraphrase or reflection which encourages the client to share more.
The counselor shares personal feelings, experiences, or reactions to the client. Should include relevant content intended to help them. Only disclose if you feel comfortable disclosing information and remember to not make it about yourself. Remember empathy is not sharing similar experiences but conveying in a caring and understanding manner what the client is feeling and thinking.