Studies of offenders Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol 49, Issue 2 174-182, Copyright ｩ 1987 by American Psychosomatic Society Free testosterone was measured in the saliva of 89 male prison inmates. Inmates with higher testosterone concentrations had more often been convicted of violent crimes. The relationship was most striking at the extremes of the testosterone distribution, where 9 out of 11 inmates with the lowest testosterone concentrations had committed nonviolent crimes, and 10 out of 11 inmates with the highest testosterone concentrations had committed violent crimes. Among the inmates convicted of nonviolent crimes, those higher in testosterone received longer times to serve before parole and longer punishments for disciplinary infractions in prison. In the housing unit where peer ratings were most reliable, inmates rated as tougher by their peers were higher in testosterone. JM Dabbs Jr, RL Frady, TS Carr and NF Besch
National Research Council Understanding Violence “ behaviors by individuals that intentionally threaten, attempt, or inflict physical harm on others. ”
Direct Political Targeted physical violence and terror administered by official authorities and those opposing it, such as military repression, police torture, and armed resistance.
Structural Chronic, historically-entrenched political- economic oppression and social inequality, ranging from exploitative international terms of trade to abusive local working conditions and high infant mortality rates.
Symbolic Defined in Bourdieu ﾕ s (1997) work as the internalized humiliations and legitimations of inequality and hierarchy ranging from sexism and racism to intimate expressions of class power. It is ﾒ exercised through cognition and misrecognition, knowledge and sentiment, with the unwitting consent of the dominated
Everyday Daily practices and expressions of violence on a micro-interactional level: interpersonal, domestic and delinquent. Concept adapted from Scheper-Hughes (1992, 1996) to focus on the individual lived experience that normalizes petty brutalities and terror at the community level and creates a commonsense or ethos of violence.